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SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15

Administration Guide

Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.

Publication Date: July 04, 2021
About This Guide
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Convenciones de la documentación
About the Making of This Documentation
I Common Tasks
1 Bash and Bash Scripts
1.1 What is The Shell?
1.2 Writing Shell Scripts
1.3 Redirecting Command Events
1.4 Using Aliases
1.5 Using Variables in Bash
1.6 Grouping and Combining Commands
1.7 Working with Common Flow Constructs
1.8 For More Information
2 sudo
2.1 Basic sudo Usage
2.2 Configuring sudo
2.3 Common Use Cases
2.4 More Information
3 YaST Online Update
3.1 The Online Update Dialog
3.2 Installing Patches
3.3 Automatic Online Update
4 YaST
4.1 Advanced Key Combinations
5 YaST in Text Mode
5.1 Navigation in Modules
5.2 Advanced Key Combinations
5.3 Restriction of Key Combinations
5.4 YaST Command Line Options
6 Managing Software with Command Line Tools
6.1 Using Zypper
6.2 RPM—the Package Manager
7 System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper
7.1 Default Setup
7.2 Using Snapper to Undo Changes
7.3 System Rollback by Booting from Snapshots
7.4 Creating and Modifying Snapper Configurations
7.5 Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots
7.6 Automatic Snapshot Clean-Up
7.7 Frequently Asked Questions
8 Remote Access with VNC
8.1 The vncviewer Client
8.2 Remmina: the Remote Desktop Client
8.3 One-time VNC Sessions
8.4 Persistent VNC Sessions
8.5 Encrypted VNC Communication
9 File Copying with RSync
9.1 Conceptual Overview
9.2 Basic Syntax
9.3 Copying Files and Directories Locally
9.4 Copying Files and Directories Remotely
9.5 Configuring and Using an Rsync Server
9.6 For More Information
II Booting a Linux System
10 Introduction to the Booting Process
10.1 Terminology
10.2 The Linux Boot Process
11 UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)
11.1 Secure Boot
11.2 For More Information
12 The Boot Loader GRUB 2
12.1 Main Differences between GRUB Legacy and GRUB 2
12.2 Configuration File Structure
12.3 Configuring the Boot Loader with YaST
12.4 Differences in Terminal Usage on IBM Z
12.5 Helpful GRUB 2 Commands
12.6 More Information
13 The systemd Daemon
13.1 The systemd Concept
13.2 Basic Usage
13.3 System Start and Target Management
13.4 Managing Services with YaST
13.5 Customization of systemd
13.6 Advanced Usage
13.7 More Information
III System
14 32-Bit and 64-Bit Applications in a 64-Bit System Environment
14.1 Runtime Support
14.2 Kernel Specifications
15 journalctl: Query the systemd Journal
15.1 Making the Journal Persistent
15.2 journalctl Useful Switches
15.3 Filtering the Journal Output
15.4 Investigating systemd Errors
15.5 Journald Configuration
15.6 Using YaST to Filter the systemd Journal
15.7 Viewing Logs in GNOME
16 update-alternatives: Managing Multiple Versions of Commands and Files
16.1 Overview
16.2 Use Cases
16.3 Getting an Overview of Alternatives
16.4 Viewing Details on Specific Alternatives
16.5 Setting the Default Version of Alternatives
16.6 Installing Custom Alternatives
16.7 Defining Dependent Alternatives
17 Basic Networking
17.1 IP Addresses and Routing
17.2 IPv6—The Next Generation Internet
17.3 Name Resolution
17.4 Configuring a Network Connection with YaST
17.5 Configuring a Network Connection Manually
17.6 Basic Router Setup
17.7 Setting Up Bonding Devices
17.8 Setting Up Team Devices for Network Teaming
17.9 Software-Defined Networking with Open vSwitch
18 Printer Operation
18.1 The CUPS Workflow
18.2 Methods and Protocols for Connecting Printers
18.3 Installing the Software
18.4 Network Printers
18.5 Configuring CUPS with Command Line Tools
18.6 Printing from the Command Line
18.7 Special Features in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
18.8 Troubleshooting
19 Graphical User Interface
19.1 X Window System
19.2 Installing and Configuring Fonts
19.3 GNOME Configuration for Administrators
20 Accessing File Systems with FUSE
20.1 Configuring FUSE
20.2 Mounting an NTFS Partition
20.3 For More Information
21 Managing Kernel Modules
21.1 Listing Loaded Modules with lsmod and modinfo
21.2 Adding and Removing Kernel Modules
22 Dynamic Kernel Device Management with udev
22.1 The /dev Directory
22.2 Kernel uevents and udev
22.3 Drivers, Kernel Modules and Devices
22.4 Booting and Initial Device Setup
22.5 Monitoring the Running udev Daemon
22.6 Influencing Kernel Device Event Handling with udev Rules
22.7 Persistent Device Naming
22.8 Files used by udev
22.9 For More Information
23 Live Patching the Linux Kernel Using kGraft
23.1 Advantages of kGraft
23.2 Low-level Function of kGraft
23.3 Installing kGraft Patches
23.4 Patch Lifecycle
23.5 Removing a kGraft Patch
23.6 Stuck Kernel Execution Threads
23.7 The kgr Tool
23.8 Scope of kGraft Technology
23.9 Scope of SLE Live Patching
23.10 Interaction with the Support Processes
24 Special System Features
24.1 Information about Special Software Packages
24.2 Virtual Consoles
24.3 Keyboard Mapping
24.4 Language and Country-Specific Settings
25 Using NetworkManager
25.1 Use Cases for NetworkManager
25.2 Enabling or Disabling NetworkManager
25.3 Configuring Network Connections
25.4 NetworkManager and Security
25.5 Frequently Asked Questions
25.6 Troubleshooting
25.7 For More Information
26 Power Management
26.1 Power Saving Functions
26.2 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
26.3 Rest for the Hard Disk
26.4 Troubleshooting
26.5 For More Information
IV Services
27 Time Synchronization with NTP
27.1 Configuring an NTP Client with YaST
27.2 Manually Configuring NTP in the Network
27.3 Configure chronyd at Runtime Using chronyc
27.4 Dynamic Time Synchronization at Runtime
27.5 Setting Up a Local Reference Clock
27.6 Clock Synchronization to an External Time Reference (ETR)
28 The Domain Name System
28.1 DNS Terminology
28.2 Installation
28.3 Configuration with YaST
28.4 Starting the BIND Name Server
28.5 The /etc/named.conf Configuration File
28.6 Zone Files
28.7 Dynamic Update of Zone Data
28.8 Secure Transactions
28.9 DNS Security
28.10 For More Information
29 DHCP
29.1 Configuring a DHCP Server with YaST
29.2 DHCP Software Packages
29.3 The DHCP Server dhcpd
29.4 For More Information
30 Sharing File Systems with NFS
30.1 Overview
30.2 Installing NFS Server
30.3 Configuring NFS Server
30.4 Configuring Clients
30.5 For More Information
31 Samba
31.1 Terminology
31.2 Installing a Samba Server
31.3 Starting and Stopping Samba
31.4 Configuring a Samba Server
31.5 Configuring Clients
31.6 Samba as Login Server
31.7 Samba Server in the Network with Active Directory
31.8 Advanced Topics
31.9 For More Information
32 On-Demand Mounting with Autofs
32.1 Installation
32.2 Configuration
32.3 Operation and Debugging
32.4 Auto-Mounting an NFS Share
32.5 Advanced Topics
33 SLP
33.1 The SLP Front-End slptool
33.2 Providing Services via SLP
33.3 For More Information
34 The Apache HTTP Server
34.1 Quick Start
34.2 Configuring Apache
34.3 Starting and Stopping Apache
34.4 Installing, Activating, and Configuring Modules
34.5 Enabling CGI Scripts
34.6 Setting Up a Secure Web Server with SSL
34.7 Running Multiple Apache Instances on the Same Server
34.8 Avoiding Security Problems
34.9 Troubleshooting
34.10 For More Information
35 Setting Up an FTP Server with YaST
35.1 Starting the FTP Server
35.2 FTP General Settings
35.3 FTP Performance Settings
35.4 Authentication
35.5 Expert Settings
35.6 For More Information
36 The Proxy Server Squid
36.1 Some Facts about Proxy Caches
36.2 System Requirements
36.3 Basic Usage of Squid
36.4 The YaST Squid Module
36.5 The Squid Configuration File
36.6 Configuring a Transparent Proxy
36.7 Using the Squid Cache Manager CGI Interface (cachemgr.cgi)
36.8 Cache Report Generation with Calamaris
36.9 For More Information
37 Web Based Enterprise Management Using SFCB
37.1 Introduction and Basic Concept
37.2 Setting Up SFCB
37.3 SFCB CIMOM Configuration
37.4 Advanced SFCB Tasks
37.5 For More Information
V Troubleshooting
38 Help and Documentation
38.1 Documentation Directory
38.2 Man Pages
38.3 Info Pages
38.4 Online Resources
39 Gathering System Information for Support
39.1 Displaying Current System Information
39.2 Collecting System Information with Supportconfig
39.3 Submitting Information to Global Technical Support
39.4 Analyzing System Information
39.5 Gathering Information during the Installation
39.6 Support of Kernel Modules
39.7 For More Information
40 Common Problems and Their Solutions
40.1 Finding and Gathering Information
40.2 Boot Problems
40.3 Login Problems
40.4 Network Problems
40.5 Data Problems
40.6 IBM Z: Using initrd as a Rescue System
A An Example Network
B Licencias GNU
B.1 GNU Free Documentation License
List of Figures
3.1 YaST Online Update
5.1 Main Window of YaST in Text Mode
5.2 The Software Installation Module
7.1 Boot Loader: Snapshots
8.1 vncviewer
8.2 Remmina's Main Window
8.3 Remote Desktop Preference
8.4 Quick-starting
8.5 Remmina Viewing SLES 15 Remote Session
8.6 Reading Path to the Profile File
8.7 Remote Administration
8.8 VNC Session Settings
8.9 Joining a Persistent VNC Session
11.1 Secure Boot Support
11.2 UEFI: Secure Boot Process
12.1 GRUB 2 Boot Editor
12.2 Boot Code Options
12.3 Code Options
12.4 Boot loader Options
12.5 Kernel Parameters
13.1 Services Manager
15.1 YaST systemd Journal
17.1 Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP
17.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Packet
17.3 Configuring Network Settings
17.4 wicked architecture
25.1 GNOME Network Connections Dialog
25.2 firewalld Zones in NetworkManager
27.1 NTP Configuration Window
27.2 Adding a Time Server
28.1 DNS Server Installation: Forwarder Settings
28.2 DNS Server Installation: DNS Zones
28.3 DNS Server Installation: Finish Wizard
28.4 DNS Server: Logging
28.5 DNS Server: Zone Editor (Basics)
28.6 DNS Server: Zone Editor (NS Records)
28.7 DNS Server: Zone Editor (MX Records)
28.8 DNS Server: Zone Editor (SOA)
28.9 Adding a Record for a Master Zone
28.10 Adding a Reverse Zone
28.11 Adding a Reverse Record
29.1 DHCP Server: Card Selection
29.2 DHCP Server: Global Settings
29.3 DHCP Server: Dynamic DHCP
29.4 DHCP Server: Start-Up
29.5 DHCP Server: Host Management
29.6 DHCP Server: Chroot Jail and Declarations
29.7 DHCP Server: Selecting a Declaration Type
29.8 DHCP Server: Configuring Subnets
29.9 DHCP Server: TSIG Configuration
29.10 DHCP Server: Interface Configuration for Dynamic DNS
29.11 DHCP Server: Network Interface and Firewall
30.1 NFS Server Configuration Tool
31.1 Determining Windows Domain Membership
31.2 Windows Explorer Advanced Attributes Dialog
31.3 Windows Explorer Directory Listing with Compressed Files
31.4 Adding a New Samba Share with Snapshotting Enabled
31.5 The Previous Versions tab in Windows Explorer
34.1 HTTP Server Wizard: Default Host
34.2 HTTP Server Wizard: Summary
34.3 HTTP Server Configuration: Listen Ports and Addresses
34.4 HTTP Server Configuration: Server Modules
35.1 FTP Server Configuration — Start-Up
39.1 HTML Report Generated by SCA Tool
39.2 HTML Report Generated by SCA Appliance
List of Examples
1.1 A Shell Script Printing a Text
6.1 Zypper—List of Known Repositories
6.2 rpm -q -i wget
6.3 Script to Search for Packages
7.1 Example timeline configuration
12.1 Usage of grub2-mkconfig
12.2 Usage of grub2-mkrescue
12.3 Usage of grub2-script-check
12.4 Usage of grub2-once
13.1 List Active Services
13.2 List Failed Services
13.3 List all Processes Belonging to a Service
16.1 Alternatives System of the java Command
17.1 Writing IP Addresses
17.2 Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask
17.3 Sample IPv6 Address
17.4 IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length
17.5 Common Network Interfaces and Some Static Routes
17.6 /etc/resolv.conf
17.7 /etc/hosts
17.8 /etc/networks
17.9 /etc/host.conf
17.10 /etc/nsswitch.conf
17.11 Output of the Command ping
17.12 Configuration for Load Balancing with Network Teaming
17.13 Configuration for DHCP Network Teaming Device
18.1 Error Message from lpd
18.2 Broadcast from the CUPS Network Server
19.1 Specifying Rendering Algorithms
19.2 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
19.3 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
19.4 Aliases and Family Names Substitutions
22.1 Example udev Rules
24.1 Entry in /etc/crontab
24.2 /etc/crontab: Remove Time Stamp Files
24.3 ulimit: Settings in ~/.bashrc
28.1 Forwarding Options in named.conf
28.2 A Basic /etc/named.conf
28.3 Entry to Disable Logging
28.4 Zone Entry for example.com
28.5 Zone Entry for example.net
28.6 The /var/lib/named/example.com.zone File
28.7 Reverse Lookup
29.1 The Configuration File /etc/dhcpd.conf
29.2 Additions to the Configuration File
31.1 A CD-ROM Share
31.2 [homes] Share
31.3 Global Section in smb.conf
31.4 Using rpcclient to Request a Windows Server 2012 Share Snapshot
34.1 Basic Examples of Name-Based VirtualHost Entries
34.2 Name-Based VirtualHost Directives
34.3 IP-Based VirtualHost Directives
34.4 Basic VirtualHost Configuration
34.5 VirtualHost CGI Configuration
36.1 A Request With squidclient
36.2 Defining ACL Rules
39.1 Output of hostinfo When Logging In as root

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