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SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP1

Administration Guide

Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.

Publication Date: July 04, 2021
About This Guide
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About the Making of This Documentation
I Common Tasks
1 Bash and Bash Scripts
1.1 What is The Shell?
1.2 Writing Shell Scripts
1.3 Redirecting Command Events
1.4 Using Aliases
1.5 Using Variables in Bash
1.6 Grouping and Combining Commands
1.7 Working with Common Flow Constructs
1.8 For More Information
2 sudo
2.1 Basic sudo Usage
2.2 Configuring sudo
2.3 Common Use Cases
2.4 More Information
3 YaST Online Update
3.1 The Online Update Dialog
3.2 Installing Patches
3.3 Automatic Online Update
4 YaST
4.1 Advanced Key Combinations
5 YaST in Text Mode
5.1 Navigation in Modules
5.2 Advanced Key Combinations
5.3 Restriction of Key Combinations
5.4 YaST Command Line Options
6 Managing Software with Command Line Tools
6.1 Using Zypper
6.2 RPM—the Package Manager
7 System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper
7.1 Default Setup
7.2 Using Snapper to Undo Changes
7.3 System Rollback by Booting from Snapshots
7.4 Enabling Snapper in User Home Directories
7.5 Creating and Modifying Snapper Configurations
7.6 Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots
7.7 Automatic Snapshot Clean-Up
7.8 Frequently Asked Questions
8 Remote Access with VNC
8.1 The vncviewer Client
8.2 Remmina: the Remote Desktop Client
8.3 One-time VNC Sessions
8.4 Persistent VNC Sessions
8.5 Encrypted VNC Communication
9 File Copying with RSync
9.1 Conceptual Overview
9.2 Basic Syntax
9.3 Copying Files and Directories Locally
9.4 Copying Files and Directories Remotely
9.5 Configuring and Using an Rsync Server
9.6 For More Information
II Booting a Linux System
10 Introduction to the Boot Process
10.1 Terminology
10.2 The Linux Boot Process
11 UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)
11.1 Secure Boot
11.2 For More Information
12 The Boot Loader GRUB 2
12.1 Main Differences between GRUB Legacy and GRUB 2
12.2 Configuration File Structure
12.3 Configuring the Boot Loader with YaST
12.4 Differences in Terminal Usage on IBM Z
12.5 Helpful GRUB 2 Commands
12.6 More Information
13 The systemd Daemon
13.1 The systemd Concept
13.2 Basic Usage
13.3 System Start and Target Management
13.4 Managing Services with YaST
13.5 Customization of systemd
13.6 Advanced Usage
13.7 More Information
III System
14 32-Bit and 64-Bit Applications in a 64-Bit System Environment
14.1 Runtime Support
14.2 Kernel Specifications
15 journalctl: Query the systemd Journal
15.1 Making the Journal Persistent
15.2 journalctl Useful Switches
15.3 Filtering the Journal Output
15.4 Investigating systemd Errors
15.5 Journald Configuration
15.6 Using YaST to Filter the systemd Journal
15.7 Viewing Logs in GNOME
16 update-alternatives: Managing Multiple Versions of Commands and Files
16.1 Overview
16.2 Use Cases
16.3 Getting an Overview of Alternatives
16.4 Viewing Details on Specific Alternatives
16.5 Setting the Default Version of Alternatives
16.6 Installing Custom Alternatives
16.7 Defining Dependent Alternatives
17 Basic Networking
17.1 IP Addresses and Routing
17.2 IPv6—The Next Generation Internet
17.3 Name Resolution
17.4 Configuring a Network Connection with YaST
17.5 Configuring a Network Connection Manually
17.6 Basic Router Setup
17.7 Setting Up Bonding Devices
17.8 Setting Up Team Devices for Network Teaming
17.9 Software-Defined Networking with Open vSwitch
18 Printer Operation
18.1 The CUPS Workflow
18.2 Methods and Protocols for Connecting Printers
18.3 Installing the Software
18.4 Network Printers
18.5 Configuring CUPS with Command Line Tools
18.6 Printing from the Command Line
18.7 Special Features in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
18.8 Troubleshooting
19 Graphical User Interface
19.1 X Window System
19.2 Installing and Configuring Fonts
19.3 GNOME Configuration for Administrators
20 Accessing File Systems with FUSE
20.1 Configuring FUSE
20.2 Mounting an NTFS Partition
20.3 For More Information
21 Managing Kernel Modules
21.1 Listing Loaded Modules with lsmod and modinfo
21.2 Adding and Removing Kernel Modules
22 Dynamic Kernel Device Management with udev
22.1 The /dev Directory
22.2 Kernel uevents and udev
22.3 Drivers, Kernel Modules and Devices
22.4 Booting and Initial Device Setup
22.5 Monitoring the Running udev Daemon
22.6 Influencing Kernel Device Event Handling with udev Rules
22.7 Persistent Device Naming
22.8 Files used by udev
22.9 For More Information
23 Live Kernel Patching with KLP
23.1 Advantages of Kernel Live Patching
23.2 Low-level Function of Kernel Live Patching
23.3 Activation of SLE Live Patching
23.4 Installing and Removing Patches
23.5 The klp Tool
23.6 Stuck Kernel Execution Threads
23.7 Patch Lifecycle
23.8 Scope of Kernel Live Patching Technology
23.9 Scope of SLE Live Patching
23.10 Interaction with the Support Processes
24 Special System Features
24.1 Information about Special Software Packages
24.2 Virtual Consoles
24.3 Keyboard Mapping
24.4 Language and Country-Specific Settings
25 Using NetworkManager
25.1 Use Cases for NetworkManager
25.2 Enabling or Disabling NetworkManager
25.3 Configuring Network Connections
25.4 NetworkManager and Security
25.5 Frequently Asked Questions
25.6 Troubleshooting
25.7 For More Information
26 Power Management
26.1 Power Saving Functions
26.2 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
26.3 Rest for the Hard Disk
26.4 Troubleshooting
26.5 For More Information
27 VM Guest
27.1 Adding and Removing CPUs
28 Persistent Memory
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Terms
28.3 Use Cases
28.4 Tools for Managing Persistent Memory
28.5 Setting Up Persistent Memory
28.6 For More Information
IV Services
29 Time Synchronization with NTP
29.1 Configuring an NTP Client with YaST
29.2 Manually Configuring NTP in the Network
29.3 Configure chronyd at Runtime Using chronyc
29.4 Dynamic Time Synchronization at Runtime
29.5 Setting Up a Local Reference Clock
29.6 Clock Synchronization to an External Time Reference (ETR)
30 The Domain Name System
30.1 DNS Terminology
30.2 Installation
30.3 Configuration with YaST
30.4 Starting the BIND Name Server
30.5 The /etc/named.conf Configuration File
30.6 Zone Files
30.7 Dynamic Update of Zone Data
30.8 Secure Transactions
30.9 DNS Security
30.10 For More Information
31 DHCP
31.1 Configuring a DHCP Server with YaST
31.2 DHCP Software Packages
31.3 The DHCP Server dhcpd
31.4 For More Information
32 Sharing File Systems with NFS
32.1 Overview
32.2 Installing NFS Server
32.3 Configuring NFS Server
32.4 Configuring Clients
32.5 For More Information
33 Samba
33.1 Terminology
33.2 Installing a Samba Server
33.3 Starting and Stopping Samba
33.4 Configuring a Samba Server
33.5 Configuring Clients
33.6 Samba as Login Server
33.7 Samba Server in the Network with Active Directory
33.8 Advanced Topics
33.9 For More Information
34 On-Demand Mounting with Autofs
34.1 Installation
34.2 Configuration
34.3 Operation and Debugging
34.4 Auto-Mounting an NFS Share
34.5 Advanced Topics
35 SLP
35.1 The SLP Front-End slptool
35.2 Providing Services via SLP
35.3 For More Information
36 The Apache HTTP Server
36.1 Quick Start
36.2 Configuring Apache
36.3 Starting and Stopping Apache
36.4 Installing, Activating, and Configuring Modules
36.5 Enabling CGI Scripts
36.6 Setting Up a Secure Web Server with SSL
36.7 Running Multiple Apache Instances on the Same Server
36.8 Avoiding Security Problems
36.9 Troubleshooting
36.10 For More Information
37 Setting Up an FTP Server with YaST
37.1 Starting the FTP Server
37.2 FTP General Settings
37.3 FTP Performance Settings
37.4 Authentication
37.5 Expert Settings
37.6 For More Information
38 Squid Caching Proxy Server
38.1 Some Facts about Proxy Servers
38.2 System Requirements
38.3 Basic Usage of Squid
38.4 The YaST Squid Module
38.5 The Squid Configuration File
38.6 Configuring a Transparent Proxy
38.7 Using the Squid Cache Manager CGI Interface (cachemgr.cgi)
38.8 Cache Report Generation with Calamaris
38.9 For More Information
39 Web Based Enterprise Management Using SFCB
39.1 Introduction and Basic Concept
39.2 Setting Up SFCB
39.3 SFCB CIMOM Configuration
39.4 Advanced SFCB Tasks
39.5 For More Information
V Troubleshooting
40 Help and Documentation
40.1 Documentation Directory
40.2 Man Pages
40.3 Info Pages
40.4 Online Resources
41 Gathering System Information for Support
41.1 Displaying Current System Information
41.2 Collecting System Information with Supportconfig
41.3 Submitting Information to Global Technical Support
41.4 Analyzing System Information
41.5 Gathering Information during the Installation
41.6 Support of Kernel Modules
41.7 For More Information
42 Common Problems and Their Solutions
42.1 Finding and Gathering Information
42.2 Boot Problems
42.3 Login Problems
42.4 Network Problems
42.5 Data Problems
42.6 IBM Z: Using initrd as a Rescue System
A An Example Network
B Licencias GNU
B.1 GNU Free Documentation License
List of Figures
3.1 YaST Online Update
5.1 Main Window of YaST in Text Mode
5.2 The Software Installation Module
7.1 Boot Loader: Snapshots
8.1 vncviewer
8.2 Remmina's Main Window
8.3 Remote Desktop Preference
8.4 Quick-starting
8.5 Remmina Viewing Remote Session
8.6 Reading Path to the Profile File
8.7 Remote Administration
8.8 VNC Session Settings
8.9 Joining a Persistent VNC Session
11.1 Secure Boot Support
11.2 UEFI: Secure Boot Process
12.1 GRUB 2 Boot Editor
12.2 Boot Code Options
12.3 Code Options
12.4 Boot Loader Options
12.5 Kernel Parameters
13.1 Services Manager
15.1 YaST systemd Journal
17.1 Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP
17.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Packet
17.3 Configuring Network Settings
17.4 wicked architecture
25.1 GNOME Network Connections Dialog
25.2 firewalld Zones in NetworkManager
29.1 NTP Configuration Window
29.2 Adding a Time Server
30.1 DNS Server Installation: Forwarder Settings
30.2 DNS Server Installation: DNS Zones
30.3 DNS Server Installation: Finish Wizard
30.4 DNS Server: Logging
30.5 DNS Server: Zone Editor (Basics)
30.6 DNS Server: Zone Editor (NS Records)
30.7 DNS Server: Zone Editor (MX Records)
30.8 DNS Server: Zone Editor (SOA)
30.9 Adding a Record for a Master Zone
30.10 Adding a Reverse Zone
30.11 Adding a Reverse Record
31.1 DHCP Server: Card Selection
31.2 DHCP Server: Global Settings
31.3 DHCP Server: Dynamic DHCP
31.4 DHCP Server: Start-Up
31.5 DHCP Server: Host Management
31.6 DHCP Server: Chroot Jail and Declarations
31.7 DHCP Server: Selecting a Declaration Type
31.8 DHCP Server: Configuring Subnets
31.9 DHCP Server: TSIG Configuration
31.10 DHCP Server: Interface Configuration for Dynamic DNS
31.11 DHCP Server: Network Interface and Firewall
32.1 NFS Server Configuration Tool
33.1 Determining Windows Domain Membership
33.2 Windows Explorer Advanced Attributes Dialog
33.3 Windows Explorer Directory Listing with Compressed Files
33.4 Adding a New Samba Share with Snapshotting Enabled
33.5 The Previous Versions tab in Windows Explorer
36.1 HTTP Server Wizard: Default Host
36.2 HTTP Server Wizard: Summary
36.3 HTTP Server Configuration: Listen Ports and Addresses
36.4 HTTP Server Configuration: Server Modules
37.1 FTP Server Configuration — Start-Up
41.1 HTML Report Generated by SCA Tool
41.2 HTML Report Generated by SCA Appliance
List of Examples
1.1 A Shell Script Printing a Text
6.1 Zypper—List of Known Repositories
6.2 rpm -q -i wget
6.3 Script to Search for Packages
7.1 Example timeline configuration
12.1 Usage of grub2-mkconfig
12.2 Usage of grub2-mkrescue
12.3 Usage of grub2-script-check
12.4 Usage of grub2-once
13.1 List Active Services
13.2 List Failed Services
13.3 List all Processes Belonging to a Service
16.1 Alternatives System of the java Command
17.1 Writing IP Addresses
17.2 Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask
17.3 Sample IPv6 Address
17.4 IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length
17.5 Common Network Interfaces and Some Static Routes
17.6 /var/run/netconfig/resolv.conf
17.7 /etc/hosts
17.8 /etc/networks
17.9 /etc/host.conf
17.10 /etc/nsswitch.conf
17.11 Output of the Command ping
17.12 Configuration for Load Balancing with Network Teaming
17.13 Configuration for DHCP Network Teaming Device
18.1 Error Message from lpd
18.2 Broadcast from the CUPS Network Server
19.1 Specifying Rendering Algorithms
19.2 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
19.3 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
19.4 Aliases and Family Names Substitutions
22.1 Example udev Rules
24.1 Entry in /etc/crontab
24.2 /etc/crontab: Remove Time Stamp Files
24.3 ulimit: Settings in ~/.bashrc
30.1 Forwarding Options in named.conf
30.2 A Basic /etc/named.conf
30.3 Entry to Disable Logging
30.4 Zone Entry for example.com
30.5 Zone Entry for example.net
30.6 The /var/lib/named/example.com.zone File
30.7 Reverse Lookup
31.1 The Configuration File /etc/dhcpd.conf
31.2 Additions to the Configuration File
33.1 A CD-ROM Share
33.2 [homes] Share
33.3 Global Section in smb.conf
33.4 Using rpcclient to Request a Windows Server 2012 Share Snapshot
36.1 Basic Examples of Name-Based VirtualHost Entries
36.2 Name-Based VirtualHost Directives
36.3 IP-Based VirtualHost Directives
36.4 Basic VirtualHost Configuration
36.5 VirtualHost CGI Configuration
38.1 A Request With squidclient
38.2 Defining ACL Rules
41.1 Output of hostinfo When Logging In as root

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