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Applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 SP4

F What's New?

The most important software modifications from version to version are outlined in the following sections. This summary indicates, for example, whether basic settings have been completely reconfigured, configuration files have been moved to other places, or other significant changes happened.

For more details and the most recent information, refer to the release notes of the respective product version. They are available in the installed system at /usr/share/doc/release-notes, or online at https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/.

F.1 Version 10 SP3 to Version 11

With SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11, the cluster stack has changed from Heartbeat to OpenAIS. OpenAIS implements an industry standard API, the Application Interface Specification (AIS), published by the Service Availability Forum. The cluster resource manager from SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 has been retained but has been significantly enhanced, ported to OpenAIS and is now known as Pacemaker.

For more details what changed in the High Availability components from SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3 to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11, refer to the following sections.

F.1.1 New Features and Functions Added

Migration Threshold and Failure Timeouts

The High Availability Extension now comes with the concept of a migration threshold and failure timeout. You can define a number of failures for resources, after which they will migrate to a new node. By default, the node will no longer be allowed to run the failed resource until the administrator manually resets the resource’s failcount. However it is also possible to expire them by setting the resource’s failure-timeout option.

Resource and Operation Defaults

You can now set global defaults for resource options and operations.

Support for Offline Configuration Changes

Often it is desirable to preview the effects of a series of changes before updating the configuration atomically. You can now create a shadow copy of the configuration that can be edited with the command line interface, before committing it and thus changing the active cluster configuration atomically.

Reusing Rules, Options and Sets of Operations

Rules, instance_attributes, meta_attributes and sets of operations can be defined once and referenced in multiple places.

Using XPath Expressions for Certain Operations in the CIB

The CIB now accepts XPath-based create, modify, delete operations. For more information, refer to the cibadmin help text.

Multi-dimensional Colocation and Ordering Constraints

For creating a set of collocated resources, previously you could either define a resource group (which could not always accurately express the design) or you could define each relationship as an individual constraint—causing a constraint explosion as the number of resources and combinations grew. Now you can also use an alternate form of colocation constraints by defining resource_sets.

Connection to the CIB From Non-cluster Machines

Provided Pacemaker is installed on a machine, it is possible to connect to the cluster even if the machine itself is not a part of it.

Triggering Recurring Actions at Known Times

By default, recurring actions are scheduled relative to when the resource started, but this is not always desirable. To specify a date/time that the operation should be relative to, set the operation’s interval-origin. The cluster uses this point to calculate the correct start-delay such that the operation will occur at origin + (interval * N).

F.1.2 Changed Features and Functions

Naming Conventions for Resource and Custer Options

All resource and cluster options now use dashes (-) instead of underscores (_). For example, the master_max meta option has been renamed to master-max.

Renaming of master_slave Resource

The master_slave resource has been renamed to master. Master resources are a special type of clone that can operate in one of two modes.

Container Tag for Attributes

The attributes container tag has been removed.

Operation Field for Prerequisites

The pre-req operation field has been renamed requires.

Interval for Operations

All operations must have an interval. For start/stop actions the interval must be set to 0 (zero).

Attributes for Colocation and Ordering Constraints

The attributes of colocation and ordering constraints were renamed for clarity.

Cluster Options for Migration Due to Failure

The resource-failure-stickiness cluster option has been replaced by the migration-threshold cluster option. See also Migration Threshold and Failure Timeouts.

Arguments for Command Line Tools

The arguments for command-line tools have been made consistent. See also Naming Conventions for Resource and Custer Options.

Validating and Parsing XML

The cluster configuration is written in XML. Instead of a Document Type Definition (DTD), now a more powerful RELAX NG schema is used to define the pattern for the structure and content. libxml2 is used as parser.

id Fields

id fields are now XML IDs which have the following limitations:

  • IDs cannot contain colons.

  • IDs cannot begin with a number.

  • IDs must be globally unique (not just unique for that tag).

References to Other Objects

Some fields (such as those in constraints that refer to resources) are IDREFs. This means that they must reference existing resources or objects in order for the configuration to be valid. Removing an object which is referenced elsewhere will therefore fail.

F.1.3 Removed Features and Functions

Setting Resource Meta Options

It is no longer possible to set resource meta-options as top-level attributes. Use meta attributes instead. See also the crm_resource man page.

Setting Global Defaults

Resource and operation defaults are no longer read from crm_config.

F.2 Version 11 to Version 11 SP1

Cluster Configuration File

The main cluster configuration file has changed from /etc/ais/openais.conf to /etc/corosync/corosync.conf. Both files are very similar. When upgrading from SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 to SP1, a script takes care of the minor differences between those files.

Rolling Upgrade

In order to migrate existing clusters with minimal downtime, SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension allows you to perform a rolling upgrade from SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 to 11 SP1. The cluster is still online while you upgrade one node after the other.

Automatic Cluster Deployment

For easier cluster deployment, AutoYaST allows you to clone existing nodes. AutoYaST is a system for installing one or more SUSE Linux Enterprise systems automatically and without user intervention, using an AutoYaST profile that contains installation and configuration data. The profile tells AutoYaST what to install and how to configure the installed system to get a completely ready-to-use system in the end. This profile can be used for mass deployment in different ways.

Transfer of Configuration Files

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension ships with Csync2, a tool for replication of configuration files across all nodes in the cluster. It can handle any number of hosts and it is also possible to synchronize files among certain subgroups of hosts only. Use YaST to configure the host names and the files that should be synchronized with Csync2.

Web-Interface for Cluster Management

The High Availability Extension now also includes the HA Web Konsole (Hawk), a Web-based user interface for management tasks. It allows you to monitor and administer your Linux cluster also from non-Linux machines. It is also an ideal solution in case your system does not provide or allow a graphical user interface.

Templates for Resource Configuration

When using the command line interface to create and configure resources, you can now choose from various resource templates for quicker and easier configuration.

Load-based Placement of Resources

By defining the capacity a certain node provides, the capacity a certain resource requires and by choosing one of several placement strategies in the cluster, resources can be placed according to their load impact to prevent decrease of cluster performance.

Cluster-aware Active/Active RAID1

It is now possible to create disaster-resilient storage configurations from two independent SANs, using cmirrord.

Read-only GFS2 Support

For easier migration from GFS2 to OCFS2, you can mount your GFS2 file systems in read-only mode to copy the data to an OCFS2 file system. OCFS2 is fully supported by SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension.

SCTP Support for OCFS2

If redundant rings are configured, OCFS2 and DLM can automatically use redundant communication paths via SCTP, independent of network device bonding.

Storage Protection

For additional layers of security in protecting your storage from data corruption, you can use a combination of IO fencing (with the external/sbd fencing device) and the sfex resource agent to ensure exclusive storage access.

Samba Clustering

The High Availability Extension now supports CTDB, the cluster implementation of the trivial database. This allows you configure a clustered Samba server—providing an High Availability solution also for heterogeneous environments.

YaST Module for IP Load Balancing

The new module allows configuration of Kernel-based load balancing with a graphical user interface. It is a front-end for ldirectord, a user-space daemon for managing Linux Virtual Server and monitoring the real servers.

F.3 Version 11 SP1 to Version 11 SP2

Geo Clusters (Multi-Site Clusters)

Apart from local clusters and metro area clusters, SUSE® Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 SP4 also supports multi-site clusters. That means you can have multiple, geographically dispersed sites with a local cluster each. Failover between these clusters is coordinated by a higher level entity, the so-called booth. Support for multi-site clusters is available as a separate option to SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension.

Access Control Lists

For defining fine-grained access rights to any part of the cluster configuration ACLs are supported. If this feature is enabled in the CRM, the available functions in the cluster management tools depend on the role and access rights assigned to a user.

Automatic Cluster Setup (sleha-bootstrap)

For quick and easy cluster setup, use the bootstrap scripts sleha-init and sleha-join to get a one-node cluster up and running in a few minutes and to make other nodes join, respectively. Any options set during the bootstrap process can be modified later with the YaST cluster module.

Corosync Unicast Mode

While multicast is still default, using unicast for the communication between nodes is now also supported. For more information, refer to Section 3.5.2, “Defining the Communication Channels”.

HA Web Konsole (Hawk)

Hawk's functionality has been considerably extended. Now you can configure global cluster properties, basic and advanced types of resources, constraints and resource monitoring. For detailed analysis of the cluster status, Hawk generates a cluster report (hb_report). View the cluster history or explore potential failure scenarios with the simulator. For details, refer to Chapter 5, Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources (Web Interface).

Resource Templates

To ease configuration of similar resources, all cluster management tools now let you define resource templates that can be referenced in primitives or certain types of constraints.

Virtualization and Cloud Integration

For placing resources based on load impact, the High Availability Extension now offers automatic detection of both the capacity of a node and the capacities a resource requires. The minimal requirements of a virtual machine (for example, the memory assigned to a Xen or KVM guest or the number of CPU cores) can be detected by a resource agent. Utilization attributes (used to define the requirements or capacity) will automatically be added to the CIB. For more information, refer to Section 4.4.6, “Placing Resources Based on Their Load Impact”.

To protect a node's network connection from being overloaded by a large number of parallel Xen or KVM live migrations, a new global cluster property has been introduced: migration-limit. It allows you to limit the number of migration jobs that the TE may execute in parallel on a node. By default, it is set to -1, which means the number of parallel migrations is unlimited.

conntrack Tools

To synchronize the connection status between cluster nodes, the High Availability Extension uses the conntrack-tools. They allow interaction with the in-kernel Connection Tracking System for enabling stateful packet inspection for iptables. For more information, refer to Section 3.5.5, “Synchronizing Connection Status Between Cluster Nodes”.

Parallel SSH (pssh)

To execute commands on all cluster nodes without having to log in to each node, use pssh. For more information, refer to Section 20.5, “Miscellaneous”.

crm resource secret

To set passwords for STONITH or other resources independent of cib.xml, use crm resource secret. For more information, refer to Section 7.5, “Setting Passwords Independent of cib.xml.

Samba Clustering

The CTDB functionality to join Active Directory Domains has been improved. For more information, refer to Section 18.3, “Joining an Active Directory Domain”.

Disaster Recovery with Rear

Rear (Relax and Recover) is an administrator tool-set for creating disaster recovery images. The disaster recovery information can either be stored via the network or locally on hard disks, USB devices, DVD/CD-R, tape or similar. The backup data is stored on a network file system (NFS).

Quotas on OCFS2

To use quotas on OCFS2 file systems, create and mount the files system with the appropriate quota features or mount options, respectively: ursquota (quota for individual users) or grpquota (quota for groups).

F.4 Version 11 SP2 to Version 11 SP3

Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources (Web Interface)

Hawk's functionality has again been extended. For example, you can monitor multiple clusters with Hawk's new Cluster Dashboard. Hawk's simulator now also allows you to change the status of nodes, add or edit resources and constraints, or change the cluster configuration for a simulator run. Apart from this, many other details in the HA Web Konsole have been enhanced.

Pacemaker GUI

The X11-based Pacemaker GUI is now in maintenance mode and is not scheduled to receive new functionality during the SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 lifecycle. For SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 12, the HA Web Konsole (Hawk) will become the default graphical user interface for the High Availability Extension.

Removing Nodes From An Existing Cluster

The sleha-remove bootstrap script now makes it easier to remove single nodes from a cluster.

Using Maintenance Mode

Sometimes it is necessary to put single nodes into maintenance mode. If your cluster consists of more than 3 nodes, you can easily set one node to maintenance mode, while the other nodes continue their normal operation.

Configuring a Cluster Resource Group

The group command in the crm shell has been extended to allow modification of groups: it is possible to add resources to a group, to delete resources from a group, and to change the order of group members.

Utilization Attributes for Groups

If multiple resources with utilization attributes are grouped or have colocation constraints, the High Availability Extension takes that into account. If possible, the resources will be placed on a node that can fulfill all capacity requirements. For details about utilization attributes, refer to Section 4.4.6, “Placing Resources Based on Their Load Impact”.

Default Probe Timeout

If no specific timeout is configured for the resource's monitoring operation, the CRM will now automatically calculate a timeout for probing. For details, refer to Section 4.2.9, “Timeout Values”. Up to now, the default timeout for probing had been inherited from the cluster-wide default operation timeout if no specific timeout was configured.

Monitoring System Health

To avoid a node running out of disk space and thus being no longer able to adequately manage any resources that have been assigned to it, the High Availability Extension provides a resource agent, ocf:pacemaker:SysInfo. Use it to monitor a node's health with respect to disk partitions.

Section 4.5.1, “Monitoring Services on Remote Hosts with Nagios Plug-ins”

Cluster Diagram

Both the crm shell and Hawk now offer the possibility to display a graphical representation of the nodes and the resources configured in the CIB. For details, refer to Section 7.1.7, “Cluster Diagram” and Section 5.1.2, “Main Screen: Cluster Status”.

Hotplugging of Bonding Slaves

Sometimes it is necessary to replace a bonding slave interface with another one, for example, if the respective network device constantly fails. The solution is to set up hotplugging of bonding slaves, which is now supported by YaST.

Configuring Cmirrord

The High Availability Extension supports RAID 10 in cmirrord: it is now possible to add multiple physical volumes per mirror leg. Also the mirrored option of the lvcreate command is supported, which means that temporarily broken mirrors are much faster to resynchronize.

Joining an Active Directory Domain

YaST now supports the CTDB functionality to join Active Directory domains.

F.5 Version 11 SP3 to Version 11 SP4

  • Introduced a consistent naming scheme for cluster names, node names, cluster resources, and constraints and applied it to the documentation. See Appendix A, Naming Conventions. (Fate#314938).

  • Improved the consistency of crm shell examples.

  • Removed chapter HA OCF Agents with the agent list. As a result, removed the part Troubleshooting and Reference, too, and moved the chapter Troubleshooting to the appendix.

  • Moved documentation for Geo Clustering for SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension into a separate document (Fate#316120). For details on how to use and set up geographically dispersed clusters, refer to the Quick Start Geo Clustering for SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension. It is available from http://documentation.suse.com/ or in your installed system under /usr/share/doc/manual/sle-ha-geo-manuals_en/.

  • Changed terminology for master-slave resources, which are now called multi-state resources in the upstream documentation.

  • Updated the screenshots.

  • Mentioned both hb_report and crm_report as command line tools for creating detailed cluster reports.

  • Numerous bug fixes and additions to the manual based on technical feedback.

Chapter 1, Product Overview
  • Changed terminology from multi-site clusters to geographically dispersed (or Geo) clusters for consistency reasons.

  • Added section about availability of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and Geo Clustering for SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension as add-on products: Section 1.1, “Availability as Add-On/Extension”.

Chapter 2, System Requirements and Recommendations
  • Restructured contents.

  • Mentioned how to create a cluster report when using a non-standard SSH port (Fate#314906). See SSH.

Chapter 3, Installation and Basic Setup
  • Added note No-Start-on-Boot Parameter (Fate#317778).

Chapter 4, Configuration and Administration Basics
Chapter 5, Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources (Web Interface)
Chapter 7, Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources (Command Line)
Chapter 9, Fencing and STONITH
  • Removed cloning of STONITH resources from examples as this is no longer needed.

  • Removed some STONITH devices that are for testing purposes only.

  • Removed external/kdumpcheck resource agent and added example configuration for the fence_kdump resource agent instead.

Chapter 10, Access Control Lists
Chapter 17, Storage Protection
Chapter 19, Disaster Recovery with Rear

The chapter has been completely revised and updated to Rear version 1.16.

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 SP4 ships two Rear versions in parallel: version 1.10.0 (included in RPM package: rear) and version 1.16 (included in RPM package rear116). For the documentation of Rear version 1.10.0, see the High Availability Guide for SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 SP3. It is available from http://documentation.suse.com/.

Chapter 20, Troubleshooting
HA OCF Agents

This chapter has been removed. The latest information about the OCF resource agents can be viewed in the installed system as described in Section 7.1.3, “Displaying Information about OCF Resource Agents”.

Appendix A, Naming Conventions
  • New appendix explaining the naming scheme used in the documentation.

Appendix E, Upgrading Your Cluster and Updating Software Packages
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