Jump to contentJump to page navigation: previous page [access key p]/next page [access key n]
SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack 2.5

Installation Guide

Publication Date: 08/10/2021

1 About SLE-VMDP

SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack contains Windows* disk and network device drivers to enable the high-performance hosting of these unmodified guest operating systems on top of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Paravirtualized drivers for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server are available, but not included in this Driver Pack. Paravirtualized drivers for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server are distributed under an open source license. They are included in both physical and electronic media of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and corresponding Customer Center update channels.

1.1 Introduction

Virtualization allows the consolidation of Linux workloads on newer, more powerful, energy-efficient hardware. Paravirtualized operating systems such as SUSE Linux Enterprise Server are aware of the underlying virtualization platform, and can therefore interact efficiently with it. Unmodified operating systems are unaware of the virtualization platform and expect to interact directly with the hardware. Because this is not possible when consolidating servers, the hardware must be emulated for the operating system. Emulation can be slow, but it is especially troubling for high-throughput disk and network subsystems. Most performance loss occurs in this area.

1.2 Bringing Performance

The device drivers in SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack bring many of the performance advantages of paravirtualized operating systems to unmodified operating systems: Only the paravirtualized device driver (not the rest of the operating system) is aware of the virtualization platform. For example, a paravirtualized disk device driver appears as a normal, physical disk to the operating system. However, the device driver interacts directly with the virtualization platform (with no emulation) to efficiently deliver disk access, allowing the disk subsystems to operate at near native speeds in a virtualized environment, without requiring changes to existing operating systems.

1.3 Support Subscription

The customer support you receive for the SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack is at the same level as your SUSE Linux Enterprise support subscription.

1.4 What's New in 2.5

The key update in version 2.5 are:

  • Support for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3 and 15 GA

  • copy/paste interaction between Virtual Machine and host

  • Native support of 10gbis NIC

  • RNG device support (random device)

  • Numerous bug fixes and enhancements

2 SLE-VMDP Certification

SLE-VMDP has been certified by Microsoft: http://www.windowsservercatalog.com/item.aspx?idItem=979ea66f-7f52-a04c-df5b-88ecc4dfa5b0&bCatID=1282

2.1 WHQL

SLE-VMDP has passed WHQL certification. See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/hardware/gg463010.aspx for more information.

2.2 SVVP

The SVVP program has validated our SLE-VMDP paravirtualized drivers. Thus, Microsoft customers running copies of Windows* Server they have acquired and licensed from Microsoft directly can receive technical support for Windows* Server in virtualized environments. See http://www.windowsservercatalog.com/svvp.aspx for more information.

3 General Installation

The SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack is available for download as one binary file: a Windows self-extracting zip file (.exe extension). There is also a virtual floppy disk (.vfd extension) for Windows* 2003 and an ISO image (.iso) for Windows* 2008 and newer that may be used for VMs running on KVM.

3.1 Prerequisites

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4 or later, or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2 or later

  • Fully virtualized Windows* virtual machines

3.2 Setup.exe Installation Instructions for KVM and Xen

  1. Download the Windows* VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe file directly into your Windows* VM.

  2. Launch the VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe to extract the installation program.

  3. Launch the setup.exe from the root of the newly created directory.

  4. Accept the EULA and follow the prompts to complete the driver installation.

  5. Reboot the VM when prompted by the installation program.

3.3 Additional KVM VirtIO Setup Instructions

Setup.exe can be run with and without VirtIO devices present in the VM. If the devices are present in the VM when setup is run, the drivers are installed and loaded at that time. If the VirtIO devices are not present when setup is run, shut down the VM, add the VirtIO devices, and start the VM. After booting, Windows* will discover the new devices and load the previously installed drivers.

To boot a running VM on a VirtIO disk, the VirtIO disk driver must be installed on a secondary/temporary (e:) VirtIO disk. After the driver is installed and controlling the disk, shut down the VM. From virt-manager, delete the secondary VirtIO disk and delete the IDE boot disk. Now add a disk of type VirtIO or VirtIO SCSI and give it the location for the boot disk. Boot the VM. The VirtIO driver will now be controlling the boot disk.

Warning
Warning: Installation Failure

Failure to install a VirtIO disk driver on a secondary disk before changing the boot disk to a VirtIO or VirtIO SCSI disk will cause the VM to crash with bug check 0x7b (inaccessible boot disk).

3.4 Installation Instructions for .vfd and .iso

A Windows* VM may attach the SLE-VMDP vfd or iso. The vfd is targeted for Windows* 2003 VMs running on KVM. It contains VirtIO disk drivers and a self-extracting *.exe file that contain all the VirtIO drivers for only Windows* 2003. The ISO contains VirtIO disk drivers for Windows* 2008 and newer. It also contains the full SLE-VMDP *.exe file that contains all the VirtIO and Xen drivers for all supported Windows* platforms.

3.5 .vfd and .iso for VirtIO Boot Disk Installation at VM Creation

This method is only used for VMs running on KVM and is used to install the VirtIO disk driver on the boot disk while the VM is being installed.

  1. See Section 8, “Step-by-Step Installation” for attaching an ISO, setting upVirtio Network, and a VirtIO disk for the Windows* VM.

  2. Add the vfd or iso to the VM configuration. Use the vfd for Windows* 2003 and the iso for Windows 2008* and newer.

  3. Set the boot disk to be of type VirtIO or VirtIO SCSI.

  4. Finish all other VM configuration options.

  5. Start the VM installation.

  6. For Windows 2003, at the very beginning of the installation there is an option to press F6 for an OEM SCSI disk installation. At that time, press F6. The VirtIO disk driver from the vfd can then be selected and installed.

  7. For Windows 2008* and newer, on the Where do you want to install Windows screen, select Load driver and follow the prompts. This will allow the VirtIO disk driver to be installed for the boot disk.

  8. Continue the Windows installation.

  9. After the VM is completely installed, the remaining VirtIO drivers can be installed by copying the VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe from the vfd or iso onto the VM's disk and performing a normal VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe installation.

3.6 Additional Xen Setup Instructions

Setup and the /boot_vscsi option: The Xen SLE-VMDP SCSI driver is capable of controlling a physical SCSI disk such as /dev/sdb. To run the SLE-VMDP SCSI driver on the boot disk, use setup /boot_vscsi. If the /boot_vscsi option is not used with setup, pvctrlw.exe can be used later to indicate that the SLE-VMDP SCSI driver should control the boot disk. Before using the /boot_vscsi option or pvctrlw.exe, the VM's configuration file must already contain the necessary SCSI information for the boot disk: the disk line needs to reference the physical disk, for example disk=['phy:/dev/sdb,...'] and there must be a vscsi= line that corresponds to the physical disk. SCSI devices and disks, other than the boot disk, that are to be controlled by the SLE-VMDP SCSI driver are not placed in the disk= line but are only referenced in the vscsi= line.

3.7 Uninstalling the Driver Pack

To uninstall the SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack, execute the uninstall.exe from the \Program Files\vmdp folder. Uninstall.exe will uninstall the SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack and remove the associated files for the hypervisor that the VM is currently running on. The /virtio and /xen parameters forces the uninstall of those drivers reqardless of the running hypervisor. When uninstalling, it is important to reboot the VM on the currently running hypervisor to all allow the uninstall to clean up additional files and registry entries on reboot.

3.8 Upgrading the Driver Pack

Setup.exe can be used to update most existing installations. To update an existing installation do the following:

  1. Download the VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe to your Windows VM.

  2. Run VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe to extract the installation program and support files into a subfolder of the folder containing VMDP-WIN-VERSION.exe.

  3. Run Setup.exe from the root of the extracted subfolder and follow the on-screen instructions.

  4. Any Found New Hardware Wizard dialogs that pop up after the update can be ignored or canceled.

With some older installations, setup cannot perform an update. In these cases, setup will inform you that the existing installation will need to be uninstalled first. Uninstall the existing installation. After being completely uninstalled, setup.exe can then be used to install the new files.

3.9 Recovering from a Failure

If a failure is caused by the driver pack, you can safely remove the driver pack and return to your previous system configuration.

  1. Shut down the virtual machine and reboot in safe mode.

  2. Uninstall the driver pack (see Section 3.7, “Uninstalling the Driver Pack”).

3.10 Known Issues

For information on known issues for this release, see the README file within the archive, or consult the SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack guides.

4 QEMU Guest Agent

This section explain what qemu-ga is and how to install it.

4.1 Qemu guest agent

SLE-VMDP setup allows for the installation of the qemu guest agent service for Windows* when invoked with the /qemu-ga command line parameter. The qemu guest agent requires the VM to be equipped with the qemu guest agent channel (see Step 4). Without the qemu guest agent channel, the qemu guest agent can install but will not load. Trying to load without the channel results in errors in the event log.

The qemu guest agent is built in the mingw environment on a Linux system with no modifications to the guest agent source code. The guest agent and supporting DLLs remain under their respective GPL licenses.

Currently many of the features of the guest agent supported in Linux VMs have not yet been implemented for Windows*. Therefore the usage of guest agent in Windows* is somewhat limited at present.

4.2 Qemu Guest Agent Installation

Open a cmd.exe from the start menu. Go to the path that contains the qemu-ga directory. View the help with the command qemu-ga.exe --help. To install the service use:

qemu-ga.exe --service install

To start the service you can use the Windows* Service Administrative tools, or the command line:

net start qemu-ga.exe

5 SLE-VMDP and v2v Support

The virt-v2v utility provides an easy way to convert virtual machines from one hypervisor format to another (for example, from Xen to KVM). In the case of Windows* guests running under Xen, this conversion process includes support for the automatic deployment of the SLE-VMDP.

5.1 SLE-VMDP RPM Package

The virt-v2v-vmdp RPM is a repackaging of the Windows* SLE-VMDP drivers into a directory structure usable by the virt-v2v utility. After being installed on a KVM host, any Windows* guests migrated to that host using the virt-v2v process can have the SLE-VMDP drivers automatically installed.

By default, virt-v2v will first check for the existence of the SLE-VMDP on the Windows* guest undergoing conversion. If found on the guest, and the virt-v2v-vmdp RPM is installed on the target host (the machine running the virt-v2v process), virt-v2v will automatically install the SLE-VMDP drivers as part of the conversion. This driver reinstallation is required to replace Xen specific drivers with virtio drivers for use with KVM.

5.2 v2v --vmdp Parameter

Installation of the SLE-VMDP can be manually influenced during virt-v2v migration using the –-vmdp parameter:

  • --vmdp=auto: only install the SLE-VMDP if already installed on source image

  • --vmdp=always: always install the SLE-VMDP during Windows* guest conversions

  • --vmdp=never: never install the SLE-VMDP

In addition to installing the drivers included with the virt-v2v-vmdp RPM, it is possible for virt-v2v to copy the SLE-VMDP setup program itself to the converted guest. While not required, if the virt-v2v host is configured to perform this, the SLE-VMDP setup program will be automatically ran upon first login. This will ensure the install/uninstall program is registered with Windows* and any residual Xen drivers are correctly uninstalled. To allow for this capability, the SLE-VMDP setup program (VMDP-WIN-2.5.exe) must be copied to /var/lib/virt-v2v/software/windows on the virt-v2v host. After copying the executable in place, ensure the setup executable name is correctly specified in /var/lib/virt-v2v/virt-v2v.db as follows:

   <!-- SUSE Virtual Machine Driver Pack (VMDP) setup program -->
   <app os='windows' name='vmdp'>
     <path>windows/VMDP-WIN-2.5.exe</path>
   </app>

The virt-v2v-vmdp RPM is available in the same download location as the SLE-VMDP setup program.

6 Best Practices

This section describes best practices, usage and potential problems using SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack.

6.1 Avoiding Problems with the Drivers

To avoid problems and potential failure of the device drivers in the driver pack, you should avoid the following actions:

  • Using the Device Manager to manage (update, disable, uninstall, etc.) the device drivers in the driver pack.

  • Deleting driver files manually. Always use the uninstall utility (see Section 3.7, “Uninstalling the Driver Pack”).

  • Uninstalling the driver pack with the installation CD attached to the virtual machine.

  • Canceling the installation when you see a security alert that indicates that the bus driver has not been properly signed. Click Yes to continue the installation.

  • Upgrading the Linux* kernel of the virtual machine host without upgrading the driver pack at the same time.

  • Installing or uninstalling the driver pack by any other process than what is documented in this guide (see Section 3.7, “Uninstalling the Driver Pack” and Section 3.7, “Uninstalling the Driver Pack”).

6.2 Before the Installation

Before installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack in your production environment, we strongly recommend that you run it in a test environment to ensure that it functions properly with your system.

6.3 Network Configuration

Do not give the server a fixed IP address before installing the driver pack, otherwise you need to switch to a different intermediate IP address before finishing the installation.

7 Advanced Installation Options

How to deal with SLE-VMDP install and uninstall.

7.1 Expert iInstallation

To help with automated installations, setup.exe currently has the following parameters:

  • /auto_reboot

  • /no_reboot

  • /eula_accepted

  • /force

  • /reset_net_params

  • /xen

  • /virtio

The default is to install the drivers for the hypervisor that the VM is currently running on. Howerver, the Xen and virtio drivers can be installed at the same time if both the /xen and /virtio parameters are given.

  • /auto_reboot: will cause the Windows* VM to automatically reboot after the setup has completed

  • /no_reboot: will prevent the reboot prompt from being displayed after the setup has completed

  • /eula_accepted: implies that the EULA has been read, accepted, and agreed to in all aspects. Accepting the EULA in this manner will therefore prevent the EULA acceptance dialog from being displayed during the setup process.

  • /force: will force the installation of the drivers and overwrite any previous drivers that may have been installed

  • /reset_net_params: will remove any net driver parameters that are still set to the default values. This is useful in upgrades when a net driver's parameter default changes. This will allow the new default to be used

  • /xen: will install the Xen drivers

  • /virtio: will install the virtio drivers

Additional options when running on a Xen hypervisor are:

  • /boot_vscsi: will configure the Windows* VM to boot off a supplied SCSI device. To use the /boot_vscsi option, the VM's configuration file must contain a vscsi= line and a disk = [phy:/...] line

  • /xvdisk: tells xenblk to only control disks of type xvd

  • /netfront: tells xennet to only control NICs of type=netfront

Advanced parameters of the Setup.exe command:

  • /w2k3, /w2k8, /win7, and /win8 : are mutually exclusive. They allow the specified drivers to be installed in the running operating system, if compatible. These parameters are for testing purposes only and are not supported

7.2 Uninstall Expert Mode

Uninstall has some parameters:

  • /auto_reboot: will cause the Windows* VM to automatically reboot at the completion of the uninstall

  • /virtio: will uninstall virtio drivers

  • /xen: will uninstall Xen drivers

8 Step-by-Step Installation

This section describes how to configure the Windows* VM under virt-manager and how to install the VMDP while installing Windows* 7. This example is an installation of a KVM host. Using the ISO is only valid on KVM hosts.

8.1 Virt-manager for Windows* 7

  1. The virtio Network interface

  2. The SLE-VMDP Virtual CD-ROM ISO:

  3. The Windows* VM Virtio disk:

  4. The Windows* VM Qemu-ga Channel device with Device parameters set to: org.qemu.guest_agent.0

8.2 Windows* 7 Installation

  1. Boot the Windows* 7 installation CD-ROM. The Select driver to be installed dialog will be displayed:

  2. Browse to the directory that contains the SLE-VMDP driver:

  3. Select the SUSE driver:

  4. Finish the installation of Windows* 7.

  5. On first boot, go to the directory which contains the SLE-VMDP driver (this should be a CD-ROM as defined in virt-manager). The VMDP-xxx.exe needs to be copied from the CD (ISO) onto the hard disk and expanded. Then double-click the Setup.exe program.

    A pop-up window will appear.

  6. To confirm the action, click Yes:

  7. Accept the End User License Agreement:

  8. The program will install the SUSE Drivers for Windows* 7:

  9. Restart your computer:

  10. Use the Windows device manager to check if all drivers have been successfully installed:

10 GNU Free Documentation License

Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or non-commercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or non-commercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU
Free Documentation License”.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

Print this page