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Applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4

14 Running Virtual Machines with qemu-kvm

Once you have a virtual disk image ready (for more information on disk images, see Section 13.2, “Managing Disk Images with qemu-img), it is time to start the related virtual machine. Section 13.1, “Basic Installation with qemu-kvm introduced simple commands to install and run a VM Guest. This chapter focuses on a more detailed explanation of qemu-kvm usage, and shows solutions of more specific tasks. For a complete list of qemu-kvm's options, see its manual page (man 1 qemu-kvm).

14.1 Basic qemu-kvm Invocation

The qemu-kvm command uses the following syntax:

qemu-kvm options1 disk_img2

1

qemu-kvm understands a large number of options. Most of them define parameters of the emulated hardware, while others affect more general emulator behavior. If you do not supply any options, default values are used, and you need to supply the path to a disk image to be run.

2

Path to the disk image holding the guest system you want to virtualize. qemu-kvm supports a large number of image formats. Use qemu-img --help to list them. If you do not supply the path to a disk image as a separate argument, you have to use the -drive file= option.

14.2 General qemu-kvm Options

This section introduces general qemu-kvm options and options related to the basic emulated hardware, such as virtual machine's processor, memory, model type, or time processing methods.

-name name_of_guest

Specifies the name of the running guest system. The name is displayed in the window caption and also used for the VNC server.

-boot options

Specifies the order in which the defined drives will be booted. Drives are represented by letters, where 'a' and 'b' stands for the floppy drives 1 and 2, 'c' stands for the first hard disk, 'd' stands for the first CD-ROM drive, and 'n' to 'p' stand for Ether-boot network adapters.

For example, qemu-kvm [...] -boot order=ndc first tries to boot from network, then from the first CD-ROM drive, and finally from the first hard disk.

-pidfile fname

Stores the QEMU's process identification number (PID) in a file. This is useful if you run QEMU from a script.

-nodefaults

By default QEMU creates basic virtual devices even if you do not specify them on the command line. This option turns this feature off, and you must specify every single device manually, including graphical and network cards, parallel or serial ports, or virtual consoles. Even QEMU monitor is not attached by default.

-daemonize

'Daemonizes' the QEMU process after it is started. QEMU will detach from the standard input and standard output after it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.

14.2.1 Basic Virtual Hardware

-M machine_type

Specifies the type of the emulated machine. Run qemu-kvm -M help to view a list of supported machine types.

tux@venus:~> qemu-kvm -M help
Supported machines are:
q35                  Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009) (alias of pc-q35-1.4)
pc-q35-1.4           Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
pc                   Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996) 
pc-i440fx-1.4        Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996) (default)
pc-1.3               Standard PC
pc-1.2               Standard PC
pc-1.1               Standard PC
pc-1.0               Standard PC
pc-0.15              Standard PC
pc-0.14              Standard PC
pc-0.13              Standard PC
pc-0.12              Standard PC
pc-0.11              Standard PC, qemu 0.11
pc-0.10              Standard PC, qemu 0.10
isapc                ISA-only PC
none                 empty machine
-m megabytes

Specifies how many megabytes are used for the virtual RAM size. Default is 512 MB.

-balloon virtio

Specifies a paravirtualized device to dynamically change the amount of virtual RAM memory assigned to VM Guest. The top limit is the amount of memory specified with -m.

-cpu cpu_model

Specifies the type of the processor (CPU) model. Run qemu-kvm -cpu ? to view a list of supported CPU models.

tux@venus:~> qemu-kvm -cpu help
 x86           qemu64  QEMU Virtual CPU version 1.4.0                  
 x86           phenom  AMD Phenom(tm) 9550 Quad-Core Processor         
 x86         core2duo  Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     T7700  @ 2.40GHz 
 x86            kvm64  Common KVM processor                            
 x86           qemu32  QEMU Virtual CPU version 1.4.0                  
 x86            kvm32  Common 32-bit KVM processor                     
 x86          coreduo  Genuine Intel(R) CPU           T2600  @ 2.16GHz 
 x86              486                                                  
 x86          pentium                                                  
 x86         pentium2                                                  
 x86         pentium3                                                  
 x86           athlon  QEMU Virtual CPU version 1.4.0                  
 x86             n270  Intel(R) Atom(TM) CPU N270   @ 1.60GHz          
 x86           Conroe  Intel Celeron_4x0 (Conroe/Merom Class Core 2)   
 x86           Penryn  Intel Core 2 Duo P9xxx (Penryn Class Core 2)    
 x86          Nehalem  Intel Core i7 9xx (Nehalem Class Core i7)       
 x86         Westmere  Westmere E56xx/L56xx/X56xx (Nehalem-C)          
 x86      SandyBridge  Intel Xeon E312xx (Sandy Bridge)                
 x86          Haswell  Intel Core Processor (Haswell)                  
 x86       Opteron_G1  AMD Opteron 240 (Gen 1 Class Opteron)           
 x86       Opteron_G2  AMD Opteron 22xx (Gen 2 Class Opteron)          
 x86       Opteron_G3  AMD Opteron 23xx (Gen 3 Class Opteron)          
 x86       Opteron_G4  AMD Opteron 62xx class CPU                      
x86       Opteron_G5  AMD Opteron 63xx class CPU
-smp number_of_cpus

Specifies how many CPUs will be emulated. QEMU supports up to 255 CPUs on the PC platform (up to 64 with KVM acceleration used). This option also takes other CPU-related parameters, such as number of sockets, number of cores per socket, or number of threads per core.

Following is an example of a working qemu-kvm command line:

qemu-kvm -name "SLES 11 SP1" -M pc-0.12 -m 512 -cpu kvm64 \
-smp 2 /images/sles11sp1.raw
QEMU Window with SLES 11 SP1 as VM Guest
Figure 14.1: QEMU Window with SLES 11 SP1 as VM Guest
-no-acpi

Disables ACPI support. Try to use it if VM Guest reports problems with ACPI interface.

-S

QEMU starts with CPU stopped. To start CPU, enter c in QEMU monitor. For more information, see Chapter 16, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor.

14.2.2 Storing and Reading Configuration of Virtual Devices

-readconfig cfg_file

Instead of entering the devices configuration options on the command line each time you want to run VM Guest, qemu-kvm can read it from a file which was either previously saved with -writeconfig or edited manually.

-writeconfig cfg_file

Dumps the current virtual machine devices configuration to a text file. It can be consequently re-used with the -readconfig option.

tux@venus:~> qemu-kvm -name "SLES 11 SP1" -M pc-0.12 -m 512 -cpu kvm64 \
-smp 2 /images/sles11sp1.raw -writeconfig /images/sles11sp1.cfg
(exited)
tux@venus:~> more /images/sles11sp1.cfg
# qemu config file

[drive]
  index = "0"
  media = "disk"
  file = "/images/sles11sp1_base.raw"

This way you can effectively manage the configuration of your virtual machines' devices in a well-arranged way.

14.2.3 Guest Real-time Clock

-rtc options

Specifies the way the RTC is handled inside a VM Guest. By default, the clock of the guest is derived from that of the host system. Therefore, it is recommended that the host system clock is synchronized with an accurate external clock (for example, via NTP service).

If you need to isolate the VM Guest clock from the host one, specify clock=vm instead of the default clock=host.

You can also specify a 'starting point' for VM Guest clock with the base option:

qemu-kvm [...] -rtc clock=vm,base=2010-12-03T01:02:00

Instead of a timestamp, you can specify utc or localtime. The former instructs VM Guest to start at the current UTC value (Coordinated Universal Time, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTC), while the latter applies the local time setting.

14.3 Using Devices in QEMU

QEMU virtual machines emulate all devices needed to run a VM Guest. QEMU supports, for example, several types of network cards, block devices (hard and removable drives), USB devices, character devices (serial and parallel ports), or multimedia devices (graphic and sound cards). For satisfactory operation and performance of the virtual machine, some or all of these devices must be configured correctly. This section introduces options to configure various types of supported devices.

Tip
Tip

If your device, such as -drive, needs a special driver and driver properties to be set, specify them with the -device option, and identify with drive= suboption. For example

qemu [...] -drive if=none,id=drive0,format=raw \
-device virtio-blk-pci,drive=drive0,scsi=off ...

To get help on available drivers and their properties, use -device ? and -device driver,?.

14.3.1 Block Devices

Block devices are vital for virtual machines. In general, these are fixed or removable storage media usually referred to as 'drives'. One of the connected hard drives typically holds the guest operating system to be virtualized.

Virtual machine drives are defined with -drive. This option uses many suboptions, some of which are described in this section. For their complete list, see the manual page (man 1 qemu-kvm).

Sub-options for the -drive Option
file=image_fname

Specifies the path to the disk image which will be used with this drive. If not specified, an empty (removable) drive is assumed.

if=drive_interface

Specifies the type of interface to which the drive is connected. Currently only floppy, ide, or virtio are supported by SUSE. virtio defines a paravirtualized disk driver. Default is ide.

index=index_of_connector

Specifies the index number of a connector on the disk interface (see the if option) where the drive is connected. If not specified, the index is automatically incremented.

media=type

Specifies the type of the media. Can be disk for hard disks, or cdrom for removable CD-ROM drives.

format=img_fmt

Specifies the format of the connected disk image. If not specified, the format is autodetected. Currently, SUSE supports qcow2, qed and raw formats for read and write access. The vmdk, vpc and vhd/vhdx formats are only supported in read-only mode.

cache=method

Specifies the caching method for the drive. Possible values are unsafe, writethrough, writeback, directsync, or none. For the qcow2 image format, choose writeback if you care about performance. none disables the host page cache and, therefore, is the safest option. Default for image files is writeback.

Tip
Tip

To simplify defining of block devices, QEMU understands several shortcuts which you may find handy when entering the qemu-kvm command line.

You can use

qemu-kvm -cdrom /images/cdrom.iso

instead of

qemu-kvm -drive file=/images/cdrom.iso,index=2,media=cdrom

and

qemu-kvm -hda /images/imagei1.raw -hdb /images/image2.raw -hdc \
/images/image3.raw -hdd /images/image4.raw

instead of

qemu-kvm -drive file=/images/image1.raw,index=0,media=disk \
-drive file=/images/image2.raw,index=1,media=disk \
-drive file=/images/image3.raw,index=2,media=disk \
-drive file=/images/image4.raw,index=3,media=disk
Tip
Tip: Using Host Drives Instead of Images

Normally you will use disk images (see Section 13.2, “Managing Disk Images with qemu-img) as disk drives of the virtual machine. However, you can also use existing VM Host Server disks, connect them as drives, and access them from VM Guest. Use the host disk device directly instead of disk image filenames.

To access the host CD-ROM drive, use

qemu-kvm [...] -drive file=/dev/cdrom,media=cdrom

To access the host hard disk, use

qemu-kvm [...] -drive file=/dev/hdb,media=disk

When accessing the host hard drive from VM Guest, always make sure the access is read-only. You can do so by modifying the host device permissions.

14.3.1.1 virtio-blk-data-plane

The virtio-blk-data-plane is a new performance feature for KVM. It enables a high-performance code path for I/O requests coming from VM Guests. More specifically, this feature introduces dedicated threads (one per virtual block device) to process I/O requests going through the virtio-blk driver. It makes use of Linux AIO (asynchronous I/O interface) support in the VM Host Server Kernel directly—without the need to go through the QEMU block layer. Therefore it can sustain very high I/O rates on storage setups.

The virtio-blk-data-plane feature can be enabled or disabled by the x-data-plane=on|off option on the qemu command line when starting the VM Guest:

qemu [...] -drive if=none,id=drive0,cache=none,aio=native,\
format=raw,file=filename -device virtio-blk-pci,drive=drive0,scsi=off,\
config-wce=off,x-data-plane=on [...]

As of now, the virtio-blk-data-plane has the following limitations:

  • Only raw image format is supported.

  • No support for live migration.

  • Block jobs and hot unplug operations fail with -EBUSY.

  • I/O throttling limits are ignored.

  • Only Linux VM Host Servers are supported because of the Linux AIO usage, but non-Linux VM Guests are supported.

Important
Important

The virtio-blk-data-plane feature is not yet supported in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. It is released as a technical preview only.

14.3.2 Graphic Devices and Display Options

This section describes QEMU options affecting the type of the emulated video card and the way VM Guest graphical output is displayed.

14.3.2.1 Defining Video Cards

QEMU uses -vga to define a video card used to display VM Guest graphical output. The -vga option understands the following values:

none

Disables video cards on VM Guest (no video card is emulated). You can still access the running VM Guest via the QEMU monitor and the serial console.

std

Emulates a standard VESA 2.0 VBE video card. Use it if you intend to use high display resolution on VM Guest.

cirrus

Emulates Cirrus Logic GD5446 video card. Good choice if you insist on high compatibility of the emulated video hardware. Most operating systems (even Windows 95) recognize this type of card.

Tip
Tip

For best video performance with the cirrus type, use 16-bit color depth both on VM Guest and VM Host Server.

14.3.2.2 Display Options

The following options affect the way VM Guest graphical output is displayed.

-nographic

Disables QEMU's graphical output. The emulated serial port is redirected to the console.

After starting the virtual machine with -nographic, press CtrlA H in the virtual console to view the list of other useful shortcuts, for example, to toggle between the console and the QEMU monitor.

tux@venus:~> qemu-kvm -hda /images/sles11sp1_base.raw -nographic

C-a h    print this help
C-a x    exit emulator
C-a s    save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)
C-a t    toggle console timestamps
C-a b    send break (magic sysrq)
C-a c    switch between console and monitor
C-a C-a  sends C-a
(pressed C-a c)

QEMU 0.12.5 monitor - type 'help' for more information
(qemu)
-no-frame

Disables decorations for the QEMU window. Convenient for dedicated desktop workspace.

-full-screen

Starts QEMU graphical output in full screen mode.

-no-quit

Disables the 'close' button of QEMU window and prevents it from being closed by force.

-alt-grab, -ctrl-grab

By default QEMU window releases the 'captured' mouse after CtrlAlt is pressed. You can change the key combination to either CtrlAltShift (-alt-grab), or Right Ctrl (-ctrl-grab).

14.3.3 USB Devices

There are basically two ways to create USB devices usable by the VM Guest in KVM: you can either emulate new USB devices inside a VM Guest, or assign an existing host USB device to a VM Guest. To use USB devices in QEMU you first need to enable the generic USB driver with the -usb option. Then you can specify individual devices with the -usbdevice option.

14.3.3.1 Emulating USB Devices in VM Guest

SUSE currently supports the following types of USB devices: disk, host, serial, braille, netmouse and tablet.

Types of USB devices for the -usbdevice option
disk

Emulates a mass storage device based on file. The optional format option is used rather than detecting the format.

qemu-kvm [...] -usbdevice
        disk:format=raw:/virt/usb_disk.raw
host

Pass through the host device (identified by bus.addr).

serial

Serial converter to a host character device.

braille

Emulates a braille device using BrlAPI to display the braille output.

net

Emulates a network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols.

mouse

Emulates a virtual USB mouse. This option overrides the default PS/2 mouse emulation. The following example shows the hardware status of a mouse on VM Guest started with qemu-kvm [...] -usbdevice mouse:

tux@venus:~> hwinfo --mouse
20: USB 00.0: 10503 USB Mouse
[Created at usb.122]
UDI: /org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/usb_device_627_1_1_if0
[...]
Hardware Class: mouse
Model: "Adomax QEMU USB Mouse"
Hotplug: USB
Vendor: usb 0x0627 "Adomax Technology Co., Ltd"
Device: usb 0x0001 "QEMU USB Mouse"
[...]
tablet

Emulates a pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (such as touchscreen). This option overrides the default PS/2 mouse emulation. The tablet device is useful if you are viewing VM Guest via the VNC protocol. See Section 14.5, “Viewing a VM Guest with VNC” for more information.

14.3.3.2 USB Pass-Through

To assign an existing host USB device to a VM Guest, you need to find out its host bus and device ID.

tux@vmhost:~> lsusb
[...]
Bus 002 Device 005: ID 12d1:1406 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. E1750
[...]

In the above example, we want to assign a USB stick connected to the host's USB bus number 2 with device number 5. Now run the VM Guest with the following additional options:

qemu-kvm [...] -usb -device usb-host,hostbus=2,hostaddr=5

After the guest is booted, check that the assigned USB device is present on it.

tux@vmguest:~> lsusb
[...]
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 12d1:1406 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. E1750
[...]
Note
Note

The guest operating system must take care of mounting the assigned USB device so that it is accessible for the user.

14.3.4 PCI Pass-Through

PCI Pass-Through is a technique to give your VM Guest exclusive access to a PCI device.

Note
Note

To make use of PCI Pass-Through, your motherboard chipset, BIOS, and CPU must have support for AMD's IOMMU (or VT-d in Intel speak) virtualization technology. To make sure that your computer supports this feature, ask your supplier specifically to deliver a system that supports PCI Pass-Through.

Note
Note

Assignment of graphics cards is not supported by SUSE.

Procedure 14.1: Configuring PCI Pass-Through
  1. Make sure that CONFIG_DMAR_DEFAULT_ON is set in the host's running Kernel:

    grep CONFIG_DMAR_DEFAULT_ON /boot/config-`uname -r`

    If this option is not set, edit your boot loader configuration and add intel_iommu=on (Intel machines) or iommu=pt iommu=1 (AMD machines). Then reboot the host machine.

  2. Check that IOMMU is actively enabled and recognized on the host. Run dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU on Intel machines, or dmesg | grep AMD-Vi on AMD machines. If you get no output, check carefully if your hardware supports IOMMU (VT-d) and check that it has been enabled in BIOS.

  3. Identify the host PCI device to assign to the guest.

    tux@vmhost:~> lspci -nn
    [...] 00:1b.0 Audio device [0403]: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) \
    HD Audio Controller [8086:284b] (rev 02) [...]

    Note down the device (00:1b.0) and vendor (8086:284b) ID.

  4. Unbind the device from host Kernel driver and bind it to the PCI stub driver.

    tux@vmhost:~> modprobe pci_stub
    tux@vmhost:~> echo "8086 284b" > /sys/bus/pci/drivers/pci-stub/new_id
    tux@vmhost:~> echo "0000:00:1b.0" > /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:1b.0/driver/unbind
    tux@vmhost:~> echo "0000:00:1b.0" > /sys/bus/pci/drivers/pci-stub/bind
  5. Now run the VM Guest with the PCI device assigned.

    qemu-kvm [...] -device pci-assign,host=00:1b.0
Note
Note

If the PCI device shares IRQ with other devices, it cannot be assigned to a VM Guest.

KVM also supports PCI device hot-plugging to a VM Guest. To achieve this, you need to switch to a QEMU monitor (see Chapter 16, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor for more information) and issue the following commands:

  • hot add:

    device_add pci-assign,host=00:1b.0,id=new_pci_device
  • hot remove:

    device_del new_pci_device

14.3.5 Character Devices

Use -chardev to create a new character device. The option uses the following general syntax:

qemu-kvm [...] -chardev backend_type,id=id_string

where backend_type can be one of null, socket, udp, msmouse, vc, file, pipe, console, serial, pty, stdio, braille, tty, or parport. All character devices must have a unique identification string up to 127 characters long. It is used to identify the device in other related directives. For the complete description of all back-end's suboptions, see the manual page (man 1 qemu-kvm). A brief description of the available back-ends follows:

null

Creates an empty device which outputs no data and drops any data it receives.

stdio

Connects to QEMU's process standard input and standard output.

socket

Creates a two-way stream socket. If path is specified, a Unix socket is created:

qemu-kvm [...] -chardev \
socket,id=unix_socket1,path=/tmp/unix_socket1,server

The server suboption specifies that the socket is a listening socket.

If port is specified, a TCP socket is created:

qemu-kvm [...] -chardev \
socket,id=tcp_socket1,host=localhost,port=7777,server,nowait

The command creates a local listening (server) TCP socket on port 7777. QEMU will not block waiting for a client to connect to the listening port (nowait).

udp

Sends all network traffic from VM Guest to a remote host over the UDP protocol.

qemu-kvm [...] -chardev udp,id=udp_fwd,host=mercury.example.com,port=7777

The command binds port 7777 on the remote host mercury.example.com and sends VM Guest network traffic there.

vc

Creates a new QEMU text console. You can optionally specify the dimensions of the virtual console:

qemu-kvm [...] -chardev vc,id=vc1,width=640,height=480 -mon chardev=vc1

The command creates a new virtual console called vc1 of the specified size, and connects the QEMU monitor to it.

file

Logs all traffic from VM Guest to a file on VM Host Server. The path is required and will be created if it does not exist.

qemu-kvm [...] -chardev file,id=qemu_log1,path=/var/log/qemu/guest1.log

By default QEMU creates a set of character devices for serial and parallel ports, and a special console for QEMU monitor. You can, however, create your own character devices and use them for just mentioned purposes. The following options will help you:

-serial char_dev

Redirects the VM Guest's virtual serial port to a character device char_dev on VM Host Server. By default, it is a virtual console (vc) in graphical mode, and stdio in non-graphical mode. The -serial understands many suboptions. See the manual page man 1 qemu-kvm for their complete list.

You can emulate up to 4 serial ports. Use -serial none to disable all serial ports.

-parallel device

Redirects the VM Guest's parallel port to a device. This option supports the same devices as -serial.

Tip
Tip

With SUSE Linux Enterprise Server as a VM Host Server, you can directly use the hardware parallel port devices /dev/parportN where N is the number of the port.

You can emulate up to 3 parallel ports. Use -parallel none to disable all parallel ports.

-monitor char_dev

Redirects the QEMU monitor to a character device char_dev on VM Host Server. This option supports the same devices as -serial. By default, it is a virtual console (vc) in a graphical mode, and stdio in non-graphical mode.

For a complete list of available character devices back-ends, see the man page (man 1 qemu-kvm).

14.4 Networking in QEMU

Use the -net option to define a network interface and a specific type of networking for your VM Guest. Currently, SUSE supports the following options: none, nic, user, bridge, and tap. For a complete list of -net suboptions, see the manual page (man 1 qemu-kvm).

Supported -net Suboptions
none

Disables a network card emulation on VM Guest. Only the loopback lo network interface is available.

bridge

Uses a specified network helper to configure the TAP interface and attach it to a specified bridge. For more information, see Section 14.4.3, “Bridged Networking”.

nic

Creates a new Network Interface Card (NIC) and connects it to a specified Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN). For more information, see Section 14.4.1, “Defining a Network Interface Card”.

user

Specifies a user-mode networking. For more information, see Section 14.4.2, “User-mode Networking”.

tap

Specifies a bridged or routed networking. For more information, see Section 14.4.3, “Bridged Networking”.

14.4.1 Defining a Network Interface Card

Use -net nic to add a new emulated network card:

qemu-kvm [...] -net nic,vlan=11,macaddr=00:16:35:AF:94:4B2,\
model=virtio3,name=ncard14

1

Connects the network interface to VLAN number 1. You can specify your own number, it is mainly useful for identification purpose. If you omit this suboption, QEMU uses the default 0.

2

Specifies the Media Access Control (MAC) address for the network card. It is a unique identifier and you are advised to always specify it. If not, QEMU supplies its own default MAC address and creates a possible MAC address conflict within the related VLAN.

3

Specifies the model of the network card. Use -net nic,model=? to get the list of all network card models supported by QEMU on your platform:

Currently, SUSE supports the models rtl8139 and virtio.

14.4.2 User-mode Networking

The -net user option instructs QEMU to use a user-mode networking. This is the default if no networking mode is selected. Therefore, these command lines are equivalent:

qemu-kvm -hda /images/sles11sp1_base.raw
qemu-kvm -hda /images/sles11sp1_base.raw -net nic -net user

This mode is useful if you want to allow the VM Guest to access the external network resources, such as Internet. By default, no incoming traffic is permitted and therefore, the VM Guest is not visible to other machines on the network. No administrator privileges are required in this networking mode. The user-mode is also useful to do a 'network-booting' on your VM Guest from a local directory on VM Host Server.

The VM Guest allocates an IP address from a virtual DHCP server. VM Host Server (the DHCP server) is reachable at 10.0.2.2, while the IP address range for allocation starts from 10.0.2.15. You can use ssh to connect to VM Host Server at 10.0.2.2, and scp to copy files back and forth.

14.4.2.1 Command Line Examples

This section shows several examples on how to set up user-mode networking with QEMU.

Example 14.1: Restricted User-mode Networking
qemu-kvm [...] -net user1,vlan=12,name=user_net13,restrict=yes4

1

Specifies user-mode networking.

2

Connect to VLAN number 1. If omitted, defaults to 0.

3

Specifies a human readable name of the network stack. Useful when identifying it in the QEMU monitor.

4

Isolates VM Guest. It will not be able to communicate with VM Host Server and no network packets will be routed to the external network.

Example 14.2: User-mode Networking with Custom IP Range
qemu-kvm [...] -net user,net=10.2.0.0/81,host=10.2.0.62,dhcpstart=10.2.0.203,\
hostname=tux_kvm_guest4

1

Specifies the IP address of the network that VM Guest sees and optionally the netmask. Default is 10.0.2.0/8.

2

Specifies the VM Host Server IP address that VM Guest sees. Default is 10.0.2.2.

3

Specifies the first of the 16 IP addresses that the built-in DHCP server can assign to VM Guest. Default is 10.0.2.15.

4

Specifies the hostname that the built-in DHCP server will assign to VM Guest.

Example 14.3: User-mode Networking with Network-boot and TFTP
qemu-kvm [...] -net user,tftp=/images/tftp_dir1,bootfile=/images/boot/pxelinux.02

1

Activates a built-in TFTP (a file transfer protocol with the functionality of a very basic FTP) server. The files in the specified directory will be visible to a VM Guest as the root of a TFTP server.

2

Broadcasts the specified file as a BOOTP (a network protocol which offers an IP address and a network location of a boot image, often used in diskless workstations) file. When used together with tftp, the VM Guest can boot from network from the local directory on the host.

Example 14.4: User-mode Networking with Host Port Forwarding
qemu-kvm [...] -net user,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22

Forwards incoming TCP connections to the port 2222 on the host to the port 22 (SSH) on VM Guest. If sshd is running on VM Guest, enter

ssh qemu_host -p 2222

where qemu_host is the hostname or IP address of the host system, to get a SSH prompt from VM Guest.

14.4.3 Bridged Networking

With the -net tap option, QEMU creates a network bridge by connecting the host TAP network device to a specified VLAN of VM Guest. Its network interface is then visible to the rest of the network. This method does not work by default and has to be explicitly specified.

First, create a network bridge and add a VM Host Server physical network interface (usually eth0) to it:

  1. Start YaST Control Center and select Network Devices › Network Settings.

  2. Click Add and select Bridge from the Device Type drop-down list in the Hardware Dialog window. Click Next.

  3. Choose whether you need a dynamically or statically assigned IP address, and fill the related network settings if applicable.

  4. In the Bridged Devices pane, select the Ethernet device to add to the bridge.

    Configuring Network Bridge with YaST
    Figure 14.2: Configuring Network Bridge with YaST

    Click Next. When asked about adapting an already configured device, click Continue.

  5. Click OK to apply the changes. Check if the bridge is created:

    tux@venus:~> brctl show
    bridge name bridge id          STP enabled  interfaces
    br0         8000.001676d670e4  no           eth0

14.4.3.1 Connecting to a Bridge Manually

Use the following example script to connect VM Guest to the newly created bridge interface br0. Several commands in the script are run via the sudo mechanism because they require root privileges.

Note
Note

Make sure the tunctl and bridge-utils packages are installed on the VM Host Server. If not, install them with zypper in tunctl bridge-utils.

#!/bin/bash
bridge=br01
tap=$(sudo tunctl -u $(whoami) -b)2
sudo ip link set $tap up3
sleep 1s4
sudo brctl addif $bridge $tap5
qemu-kvm -m 512 -hda /images/sles11sp1_base.raw \
-net nic,vlan=0,model=virtio,macaddr=00:16:35:AF:94:4B \
-net tap,vlan=0,ifname=$tap6,script=no7,downscript=no
sudo brctl delif $bridge $tap8
sudo ip link set $tap down9
sudo tunctl -d $tap10

1

Name of the bridge device.

2

Prepare a new TAP device and assign it to the user who runs the script. TAP devices are virtual network devices often used for virtualization and emulation setups.

3

Bring up the newly created TAP network interface.

4

Make a 1 second pause to make sure the new TAP network interface is really up.

5

Add the new TAP device to the network bridge br0.

6

The ifname= suboption specifies the name of the TAP network interface used for bridging.

7

Before qemu-kvm connects to a network bridge, it checks the script and downscript values. If it finds the specified scripts on the VM Host Server file system, it runs the script before it connects to the network bridge and downscript after it exits the network environment. You can use these scripts to first set up and bring up the bridged network devices, and then to deconfigure them. By default, /etc/qemu-ifup and /etc/qemu-ifdown are examined. If script=no and downscript=no are specified, the script execution is disabled and you have to take care manually.

8

Deletes the TAP interface from a network bridge br0.

9

Sets the state of the TAP device to 'down'.

10

Deconfigures the TAP device.

14.4.3.2 Connecting to a Bridge with qemu-bridge-helper

Another way to connect VM Guest to a network through a network bridge is by means of the qemu-bridge-helper helper program. It configures the TAP interface for you, and attaches it to the specified bridge. The default helper executable is /usr/lib64/qemu-bridge-helper. The helper executable is setuid root, which is only executable by the members of the virtualization group (kvm). Therefore the qemu-kvm command itself does not have to be run under root privileges.

You can call the helper the following way:

qemu-kvm [...] -net nic,vlan=0,model=virtio -net bridge,vlan=0,br=br0

You can specify your own custom helper script that will take care of the TAP device (de)configuration, with the helper=/path/to/your/helper option:

qemu-kvm [...] -net bridge,vlan=0,br=br1,helper=/path/to/bridge-helper
Tip
Tip

To define access privileges to qemu-bridge-helper, inspect the /etc/qemu-kvm/bridge.conf file. For example the following directive

allow br0

allows the qemu-kvm command to connect its VM Guest to the network bridge br0.

14.4.4 Accelerated Networking with vhost-net

The vhost-net module is used to accelerate KVM's paravirtualized network drivers. It provides better latency and greater throughput for network.

To make use of the module, verify that the host's running Kernel has CONFIG_VHOST_NET turned on or enabled as a module:

grep CONFIG_VHOST_NET /boot/config-`uname -r`

Also verify that the guest's running Kernel has CONFIG_PCI_MSI enabled:

grep CONFIG_PCI_MSI /boot/config-`uname -r`

If both conditions are met, use the vhost-net driver by starting the guest with the following example command line:

qemu-kvm [...] -netdev tap,id=guest0,vhost=on,script=no
-net nic,model=virtio,netdev=guest0,macaddr=00:16:35:AF:94:4B

Note that guest0 is an identification string of the vhost-driven device.

14.5 Viewing a VM Guest with VNC

QEMU normally uses an SDL (a cross-platform multimedia library) window to display the graphical output of a VM Guest. With the -vnc option specified, you can make QEMU listen on a specified VNC display and redirect its graphical output to the VNC session.

Tip
Tip

When working with QEMU's virtual machine via VNC session, it is useful to work with the -usbdevice tablet option.

Moreover, if you need to use another keyboard layout than the default en-us, specify it with the -k option.

The first suboption of -vnc must be a display value. The -vnc option understands the following display specifications:

host:display

Only connections from host on the display number display will be accepted. The TCP port on which the VNC session is then running is normally a 5900 + display number. If you do not specify host, connections will be accepted from any host.

unix:path

The VNC server listens for connections on Unix domain sockets. The path option specifies the location of the related Unix socket.

none

The VNC server functionality is initialized, but the server itself is not started. You can start the VNC server later with the QEMU monitor. For more information, see Chapter 16, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor.

tux@venus:~> qemu-kvm [...] -vnc :5
(on the client:)
wilber@jupiter:~> vinagre venus:5905 &
QEMU VNC Session
Figure 14.3: QEMU VNC Session

14.5.1 Secure VNC Connections

The default VNC server setup does not use any form of authentication. In the previous example, any user can connect and view the QEMU VNC Session from any host on the network.

There are several levels of security which you can apply to your VNC client/server connection. You can either protect your connection with a password, use x509 certificates, use SASL authentication, or even combine some of these authentication methods in one QEMU command.

See Section A.2, “Generating x509 Client/Server Certificates” for more information about the x509 certificates generation. For more information about configuring x509 certificates on a VM Host Server and the client, see Section 8.2.2, “Remote TLS/SSL Connection with x509 Certificate (qemu+tls)” and Section 8.2.2.3, “Configuring the Client and Testing the Setup”.

The Vinagre VNC viewer supports advanced authentication mechanisms. Therefore, it will be used to view the graphical output of VM Guest in the following examples. For this example, let us assume that the server x509 certificates ca-cert.pem, server-cert.pem, and server-key.pem are located in the /etc/pki/qemu directory on the host, while the client's certificates are distributed in the following locations on the client:

/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/clientcert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/private/clientkey.pem
Example 14.5: Password Authentication
qemu-kvm [...] -vnc :5,password -monitor stdio

Starts the VM Guest graphical output on VNC display number 5 (usually port 5905). The password suboption initializes a simple password-based authentication method. There is no password set by default and you have to set one with the change vnc password command in QEMU monitor:

QEMU 0.12.5 monitor - type 'help' for more information
(qemu) change vnc password
Password: ****

You need the -monitor stdio option here, because you would not be able to manage the QEMU monitor without redirecting its input/output.

Authentication Dialog in Vinagre
Figure 14.4: Authentication Dialog in Vinagre
Example 14.6: x509 Certificate Authentication

The QEMU VNC server can use TLS encryption for the session and x509 certificates for authentication. The server asks the client for a certificate and validates it against the CA certificate. Use this authentication type if your company provides an internal certificate authority.

qemu-kvm [...] -vnc :5,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu
Example 14.7: x509 Certificate and Password Authentication

You can combine the password authentication with TLS encryption and x509 certificate authentication to create a two-layer authentication model for clients. Remember to set the password in the QEMU monitor after you run the following command:

qemu-kvm [...] -vnc :5,password,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio
Example 14.8: SASL Authentication

Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) is a framework for authentication and data security in Internet protocols. It integrates several authentication mechanisms, like PAM, Kerberos, LDAP and more. SASL keeps its own user database, so the connecting user accounts do not need to exist on VM Host Server.

For security reasons, you are advised to combine SASL authentication with TLS encryption and x509 certificates:

qemu-kvm [...] -vnc :5,tls,x509,sasl -monitor stdio

14.6 VirtFS: Sharing Folders between Host and Guests

VM Guests usually run in a separate computing space—they are provided their own memory range, dedicated CPUs, and file system space. Ability to share parts of VM Host Server's file system makes the virtualization environment more flexible by simplifying mutual data exchange. Network file systems, such as CIFS and NFS, have been the traditional way of sharing folders. But as they are not specifically designed for virtualization purposes, they suffer from major performance and feature issues.

KVM introduces a new and more optimized tool called VirtFS (sometimes referred to as a file system pass-through). VirtFS uses a paravirtual file system driver, which avoids converting the guest application file system operations into block device operations, and then again into host file system operations. VirtFS uses Plan-9 network protocol for communication between the guest and the host.

You can typically use VirtFS to

  • access a shared folder from several guests, or to provide guest-to-guest file system access.

  • replace the virtual disk as the root file system to which the guest's ramdisk connects to during the guest boot process

  • provide storage services to different customers from a single host file system in a cloud environment

14.6.1 Implementation

In QEMU, the implementation of VirtFS is facilitated by defining two types of devices:

  • virtio-9p-pci device which transports protocol messages and data between the host and the guest.

  • fsdev device which defines the export file system properties, such as file system type and security model.

Example 14.9: Exporting Host's Filesystem with VirtFS
qemu-kvm [...] -fsdev local,id=exp11,path=/tmp/2,security_model=mapped3
-device virtio-9p-pci,fsdev=exp14,mount_tag=v_tmp5

1

Identification of the file system to be exported.

2

Filesystem path on the host to be exported.

3

Security model to be used—mapped keeps the guest file system modes and permissions isolated from the host, while none invokes a pass-through security model in which permission changes on the guest's files are reflected on the host as well.

4

The exported file system ID defined before with -fsdev id= .

5

Mount tag used later on the guest to mount the exported file system.

Such an exported file system can be mounted on the guest like this

mount -t 9p -o trans=virtio v_tmp /mnt

where v_tmp is the mount tag defined earlier with -device mount_tag= and /mnt is the mount point where you want to mount the exported file system.

14.7 KSM: Sharing Memory Pages between Guests

Kernel SamePage Merging (KSM) is a Linux Kernel feature which merges identical memory pages from multiple running processes into one memory region. Because KVM guests run as processes under Linux, KSM provides the memory overcommit feature to hypervisors for more efficient use of memory. Therefore, if you need to run multiple virtual machines on a host with limited memory, KSM is the best solution for you.

To make use of KSM, do the following.

  1. Verify that KSM is enabled in your running Kernel:

    grep KSM /boot/config-`uname -r`
    CONFIG_KSM=y

    If KSM is enabled in the running Kernel, you will see the following files under the /sys/kernel/mm/ksm directory:

    ls -l /sys/kernel/mm/ksm
    total 0
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    0 Nov  9 07:10 ./
    drwxr-xr-x 6 root root    0 Nov  9 07:10 ../
    -r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 full_scans
    -r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 pages_shared
    -r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 pages_sharing
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 pages_to_scan
    -r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 pages_unshared
    -r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 pages_volatile
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 run
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Nov  9 07:10 sleep_millisecs
  2. Check if KSM feature is turned on.

    cat /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run

    If the command returns 0, turn KSM on with

    echo 1 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run
  3. Now run several VM Guests under KVM and inspect the content of files pages_sharing and pages_shared, for example:

    while [ 1 ]; do cat /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/pages_shared; sleep 1; done
    13522
    13523
    13519
    13518
    13520
    13520
    13528

For more information on the meaning of the /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/* files, see /usr/src/linux/Documentation/vm/ksm.txt (package kernel-source).

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