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SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4

Administration Guide

Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.

Publication Date: October 23, 2020
About This Guide
Available Documentation
Giving Feedback
Documentation Conventions
Product Life Cycle and Support
I Common Tasks
1 Bash and Bash Scripts
1.1 What is The Shell?
1.2 Writing Shell Scripts
1.3 Redirecting Command Events
1.4 Using Aliases
1.5 Using Variables in Bash
1.6 Grouping and Combining Commands
1.7 Working with Common Flow Constructs
1.8 For More Information
2 sudo
2.1 Basic sudo Usage
2.2 Configuring sudo
2.3 Common Use Cases
2.4 More Information
3 YaST Online Update
3.1 The Online Update Dialog
3.2 Installing Patches
3.3 Automatic Online Update
4 YaST
4.1 Advanced Key Combinations
5 YaST in Text Mode
5.1 Navigation in Modules
5.2 Advanced Key Combinations
5.3 Restriction of Key Combinations
5.4 YaST Command Line Options
6 Managing Software with Command Line Tools
6.1 Using Zypper
6.2 RPM—the Package Manager
7 System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper
7.1 Default Setup
7.2 Using Snapper to Undo Changes
7.3 System Rollback by Booting from Snapshots
7.4 Enabling Snapper in User Home Directories
7.5 Creating and Modifying Snapper Configurations
7.6 Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots
7.7 Automatic Snapshot Clean-Up
7.8 Frequently Asked Questions
8 Remote Access with VNC
8.1 The vncviewer Client
8.2 Remmina: the Remote Desktop Client
8.3 One-time VNC Sessions
8.4 Persistent VNC Sessions
8.5 Encrypted VNC Communication
9 File Copying with RSync
9.1 Conceptual Overview
9.2 Basic Syntax
9.3 Copying Files and Directories Locally
9.4 Copying Files and Directories Remotely
9.5 Configuring and Using an Rsync Server
9.6 For More Information
II Booting a Linux System
10 Introduction to the Boot Process
10.1 Terminology
10.2 The Linux Boot Process
11 UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)
11.1 Secure Boot
11.2 For More Information
12 The Boot Loader GRUB 2
12.1 Main Differences between GRUB Legacy and GRUB 2
12.2 Configuration File Structure
12.3 Configuring the Boot Loader with YaST
12.4 Differences in Terminal Usage on z Systems
12.5 Helpful GRUB 2 Commands
12.6 More Information
13 The systemd Daemon
13.1 The systemd Concept
13.2 Basic Usage
13.3 System Start and Target Management
13.4 Managing Services with YaST
13.5 Customization of systemd
13.6 Advanced Usage
13.7 More Information
III System
14 32-Bit and 64-Bit Applications in a 64-Bit System Environment
14.1 Runtime Support
14.2 Kernel Specifications
15 journalctl: Query the systemd Journal
15.1 Making the Journal Persistent
15.2 journalctl Useful Switches
15.3 Filtering the Journal Output
15.4 Investigating systemd Errors
15.5 Journald Configuration
15.6 Using YaST to Filter the systemd Journal
16 Basic Networking
16.1 IP Addresses and Routing
16.2 IPv6—The Next Generation Internet
16.3 Name Resolution
16.4 Configuring a Network Connection with YaST
16.5 Configuring a Network Connection Manually
16.6 Basic Router Setup
16.7 Setting Up Bonding Devices
16.8 Setting Up Team Devices for Network Teaming
16.9 Software-Defined Networking with Open vSwitch
17 Printer Operation
17.1 The CUPS Workflow
17.2 Methods and Protocols for Connecting Printers
17.3 Installing the Software
17.4 Network Printers
17.5 Configuring CUPS with Command Line Tools
17.6 Printing from the Command Line
17.7 Special Features in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
17.8 Troubleshooting
18 The X Window System
18.1 Installing and Configuring Fonts
18.2 For More Information
19 Accessing File Systems with FUSE
19.1 Configuring FUSE
19.2 Mounting an NTFS Partition
19.3 For More Information
20 Managing Kernel Modules
20.1 Listing Loaded Modules with lsmod and modinfo
20.2 Adding and Removing Kernel Modules
21 Dynamic Kernel Device Management with udev
21.1 The /dev Directory
21.2 Kernel uevents and udev
21.3 Drivers, Kernel Modules and Devices
21.4 Booting and Initial Device Setup
21.5 Monitoring the Running udev Daemon
21.6 Influencing Kernel Device Event Handling with udev Rules
21.7 Persistent Device Naming
21.8 Files used by udev
21.9 For More Information
22 Live Patching the Linux Kernel Using kGraft
22.1 Advantages of kGraft
22.2 Low-level Function of kGraft
22.3 Installing kGraft Patches
22.4 Patch Lifecycle
22.5 Removing a kGraft Patch
22.6 Stuck Kernel Execution Threads
22.7 The kgr Tool
22.8 Scope of kGraft Technology
22.9 Scope of SLE Live Patching
22.10 Interaction with the Support Processes
23 Special System Features
23.1 Information about Special Software Packages
23.2 Virtual Consoles
23.3 Keyboard Mapping
23.4 Language and Country-Specific Settings
24 Persistent Memory
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Terms
24.3 Use Cases
24.4 Tools for Managing Persistent Memory
24.5 Setting Up Persistent Memory
24.6 For More Information
IV Services
25 Time Synchronization with NTP
25.1 Configuring an NTP Client with YaST
25.2 Manually Configuring NTP in the Network
25.3 Setting Up a Local Reference Clock
25.4 Clock Synchronization to an External Time Reference (ETR)
26 The Domain Name System
26.1 DNS Terminology
26.2 Installation
26.3 Configuration with YaST
26.4 Starting the BIND Name Server
26.5 The /etc/named.conf Configuration File
26.6 Zone Files
26.7 Dynamic Update of Zone Data
26.8 Secure Transactions
26.9 DNS Security
26.10 For More Information
27 DHCP
27.1 Configuring a DHCP Server with YaST
27.2 DHCP Software Packages
27.3 The DHCP Server dhcpd
27.4 For More Information
28 Sharing File Systems with NFS
28.1 Overview
28.2 Installing NFS Server
28.3 Configuring NFS Server
28.4 Configuring Clients
28.5 For More Information
29 Samba
29.1 Terminology
29.2 Installing a Samba Server
29.3 Starting and Stopping Samba
29.4 Configuring a Samba Server
29.5 Configuring Clients
29.6 Samba as Login Server
29.7 Samba Server in the Network with Active Directory
29.8 Advanced Topics
29.9 For More Information
30 On-Demand Mounting with Autofs
30.1 Installation
30.2 Configuration
30.3 Operation and Debugging
30.4 Auto-Mounting an NFS Share
30.5 Advanced Topics
31 SLP
31.1 The SLP Front-End slptool
31.2 Providing Services via SLP
31.3 For More Information
32 The Apache HTTP Server
32.1 Quick Start
32.2 Configuring Apache
32.3 Starting and Stopping Apache
32.4 Installing, Activating, and Configuring Modules
32.5 Enabling CGI Scripts
32.6 Setting Up a Secure Web Server with SSL
32.7 Running Multiple Apache Instances on the Same Server
32.8 Avoiding Security Problems
32.9 Troubleshooting
32.10 For More Information
33 Setting Up an FTP Server with YaST
33.1 Starting the FTP Server
33.2 FTP General Settings
33.3 FTP Performance Settings
33.4 Authentication
33.5 Expert Settings
33.6 For More Information
34 The Proxy Server Squid
34.1 Some Facts about Proxy Caches
34.2 System Requirements
34.3 Basic Usage of Squid
34.4 The YaST Squid Module
34.5 The Squid Configuration File
34.6 Configuring a Transparent Proxy
34.7 Using the Squid Cache Manager CGI Interface (cachemgr.cgi)
34.8 squidGuard
34.9 Cache Report Generation with Calamaris
34.10 For More Information
35 Web Based Enterprise Management Using SFCB
35.1 Introduction and Basic Concept
35.2 Setting Up SFCB
35.3 SFCB CIMOM Configuration
35.4 Advanced SFCB Tasks
35.5 For More Information
V Mobile Computers
36 Mobile Computing with Linux
36.1 Laptops
36.2 Mobile Hardware
36.3 Cellular Phones and PDAs
36.4 For More Information
37 Using NetworkManager
37.1 Use Cases for NetworkManager
37.2 Enabling or Disabling NetworkManager
37.3 Configuring Network Connections
37.4 NetworkManager and Security
37.5 Frequently Asked Questions
37.6 Troubleshooting
37.7 For More Information
38 Power Management
38.1 Power Saving Functions
38.2 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
38.3 Rest for the Hard Disk
38.4 Troubleshooting
38.5 For More Information
VI Troubleshooting
39 Help and Documentation
39.1 Documentation Directory
39.2 Man Pages
39.3 Info Pages
39.4 Online Resources
40 Gathering System Information for Support
40.1 Displaying Current System Information
40.2 Collecting System Information with Supportconfig
40.3 Submitting Information to Global Technical Support
40.4 Analyzing System Information
40.5 Gathering Information during the Installation
40.6 Support of Kernel Modules
40.7 For More Information
41 Common Problems and Their Solutions
41.1 Finding and Gathering Information
41.2 Installation Problems
41.3 Boot Problems
41.4 Login Problems
41.5 Network Problems
41.6 Data Problems
41.7 IBM z Systems: Using initrd as a Rescue System
A Documentation Updates
A.1 February 2019 (Documentation Maintenance Update for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4)
A.2 December 2018 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4)
A.3 October 2018 (Documentation Maintenance Update for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3)
A.4 September 2017 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3)
A.5 November 2016 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2)
A.6 March 2016 (Documentation Maintenance Update for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1)
A.7 December 2015 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1)
A.8 February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance Update)
A.9 October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12)
B An Example Network
C GNU Licenses
C.1 GNU Free Documentation License
List of Figures
3.1 YaST Online Update
5.1 Main Window of YaST in Text Mode
5.2 The Software Installation Module
7.1 Boot Loader: Snapshots
8.1 vncviewer
8.2 Remmina's Main Window
8.3 Remote Desktop Preference
8.4 Quick-starting
8.5 Remmina Viewing SLES 15 Remote Session
8.6 Reading Path to the Profile File
8.7 Remote Administration
8.8 VNC Session Settings
8.9 Joining a Persistent VNC Session
11.1 Secure Boot Support
11.2 UEFI: Secure Boot Process
12.1 GRUB 2 Boot Editor
12.2 Boot Code Options
12.3 Code Options
12.4 Boot loader Options
12.5 Kernel Parameters
13.1 Services Manager
15.1 YaST systemd Journal
16.1 Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP
16.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Packet
16.3 Configuring Network Settings
16.4 wicked architecture
25.1 YaST: NTP Server
25.2 Advanced NTP Configuration: Security Settings
26.1 DNS Server Installation: Forwarder Settings
26.2 DNS Server Installation: DNS Zones
26.3 DNS Server Installation: Finish Wizard
26.4 DNS Server: Logging
26.5 DNS Server: Zone Editor (Basics)
26.6 DNS Server: Zone Editor (NS Records)
26.7 DNS Server: Zone Editor (MX Records)
26.8 DNS Server: Zone Editor (SOA)
26.9 Adding a Record for a Master Zone
26.10 Adding a Reverse Zone
26.11 Adding a Reverse Record
27.1 DHCP Server: Card Selection
27.2 DHCP Server: Global Settings
27.3 DHCP Server: Dynamic DHCP
27.4 DHCP Server: Start-Up
27.5 DHCP Server: Host Management
27.6 DHCP Server: Chroot Jail and Declarations
27.7 DHCP Server: Selecting a Declaration Type
27.8 DHCP Server: Configuring Subnets
27.9 DHCP Server: TSIG Configuration
27.10 DHCP Server: Interface Configuration for Dynamic DNS
27.11 DHCP Server: Network Interface and Firewall
28.1 NFS Server Configuration Tool
29.1 Determining Windows Domain Membership
29.2 Windows Explorer Advanced Attributes Dialog
29.3 Windows Explorer Directory Listing with Compressed Files
29.4 Adding a New Samba Share with Snapshotting Enabled
29.5 The Previous Versions tab in Windows Explorer
32.1 HTTP Server Wizard: Default Host
32.2 HTTP Server Wizard: Summary
32.3 HTTP Server Configuration: Listen Ports and Addresses
32.4 HTTP Server Configuration: Server Modules
33.1 FTP Server Configuration — Start-Up
35.1 Package Selection for Web-Based Enterprise Management Pattern
35.2 Package selection of additional CIM providers
36.1 Integrating a Mobile Computer in an Existing Environment
37.1 GNOME Network Connections Dialog
40.1 HTML Report Generated by SCA Tool
40.2 HTML Report Generated by SCA Appliance
41.1 Checking Media
41.2 US Keyboard Layout
List of Examples
1.1 A Shell Script Printing a Text
6.1 Zypper—List of Known Repositories
6.2 rpm -q -i wget
6.3 Script to Search for Packages
7.1 Example timeline configuration
12.1 Usage of grub2-mkconfig
12.2 Usage of grub2-mkrescue
12.3 Usage of grub2-script-check
12.4 Usage of grub2-once
13.1 List Active Services
13.2 List Failed Services
13.3 List all Processes Belonging to a Service
16.1 Writing IP Addresses
16.2 Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask
16.3 Sample IPv6 Address
16.4 IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length
16.5 Common Network Interfaces and Some Static Routes
16.6 /etc/resolv.conf
16.7 /etc/hosts
16.8 /etc/networks
16.9 /etc/host.conf
16.10 /etc/nsswitch.conf
16.11 Output of the Command ping
16.12 Configuration for Loadbalancing with Network Teaming
16.13 Configuration for DHCP Network Teaming Device
17.1 Error Message from lpd
17.2 Broadcast from the CUPS Network Server
18.1 Specifying Rendering Algorithms
18.2 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
18.3 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
18.4 Aliases and Family Names Substitutions
21.1 Example udev Rules
23.1 Entry in /etc/crontab
23.2 /etc/crontab: Remove Time Stamp Files
23.3 ulimit: Settings in ~/.bashrc
26.1 Forwarding Options in named.conf
26.2 A Basic /etc/named.conf
26.3 Entry to Disable Logging
26.4 Zone Entry for example.com
26.5 Zone Entry for example.net
26.6 The /var/lib/named/example.com.zone File
26.7 Reverse Lookup
27.1 The Configuration File /etc/dhcpd.conf
27.2 Additions to the Configuration File
29.1 A CD-ROM Share
29.2 [homes] Share
29.3 Global Section in smb.conf
29.4 Using rpcclient to Request a Windows Server 2012 Share Snapshot
32.1 Basic Examples of Name-Based VirtualHost Entries
32.2 Name-Based VirtualHost Directives
32.3 IP-Based VirtualHost Directives
32.4 Basic VirtualHost Configuration
32.5 VirtualHost CGI Configuration
34.1 A Request With squidclient
34.2 Defining ACL Rules
40.1 Output of hostinfo When Logging In as root

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