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Applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP1

Part I Common Tasks Edit source

1 Bash and Bash Scripts

Today, many people use computers with a graphical user interface (GUI) like GNOME. Although GUIs offer many features, they're limited when performing automated task execution. Shells complement GUIs well, and this chapter gives an overview of some aspects of shells, in this case the Bash shell.

2 sudo

Many commands and system utilities need to be run as root to modify files and/or perform tasks that only the super user is allowed to. For security reasons and to avoid accidentally running dangerous commands, it is generally advisable not to log in directly as root. Instead, it is recommended to wo…

3 YaST Online Update

SUSE offers a continuous stream of software security updates for your product. By default, the update applet is used to keep your system up-to-date. Refer to Section 20.5, “The GNOME Package Updater” for further information on the update applet. This chapter covers the alternative tool for updating …

4 YaST

YaST is the installation and configuration tool for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. It has a graphical interface and the capability to customize your system quickly during and after the installation. It can be used to set up hardware, configure the network, system services, and tune your security sett…

5 YaST in Text Mode

This section is intended for system administrators and experts who do not run an X server on their systems and depend on the text-based installation tool. It provides basic information about starting and operating YaST in text mode.

6 Managing Software with Command Line Tools

This chapter describes Zypper and RPM, two command line tools for managing software. For a definition of the terminology used in this context (for example, repository, patch, or update) refer to Section 20.1, “Definition of Terms”.

7 System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper

Snapper allows creating and managing file system snapshots. File system snapshots allow keeping a copy of the state of a file system at a certain point of time. The standard setup of Snapper is designed to allow rolling back system changes. However, you can also use it to create on-disk backups of user data. As the basis for this functionality, Snapper uses the Btrfs file system or thinly-provisioned LVM volumes with an XFS or Ext4 file system.

8 Live Kernel Patching with KLP

This document describes the basic principles of the Kernel Live Patching (KLP) technology, and provides usage guidelines for the SLE Live Patching service.

9 Transactional Updates

Transactional updates are available in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server as a technology preview, for updating SLES when the root filesystem is read-only. Transactional updates are atomic (all updates are applied only if all updates succeed) and support rollbacks. It does not affect a running system as no changes are activated until after the system is rebooted. As reboots are disruptive, the admin must decide if a reboot is more expensive than disturbing running services. If reboots are too expensive then do not use transactional updates.

Transactional updates are run daily by the transactional-update script. The script checks for available updates. If there are any updates, it creates a new snapshot of the root file system in the background, and then fetches updates from the release channels. After the new snapshot is completely updated, it is marked as active and will be the new default root file system after the next reboot of the system. When transactional-update is set to run automatically (which is the default behavior) it also reboots the system. Both the time that the update runs and the reboot maintenance window are configurable.

Only packages that are part of the snapshot of the root file system can be updated. If packages contain files that are not part of the snapshot, the update could fail or break the system.

RPMs that require a license to be accepted cannot be updated.

10 Remote Graphical Sessions with VNC

Virtual Network Computing (VNC) enables you to access a remote computer via a graphical desktop, and run remote graphical applications. VNC is platform-independent and accesses the remote machine from any operating system. This chapter describes how to connect to a VNC server with the desktop clients vncviewer and Remmina, and how to operate a VNC server.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server supports two different kinds of VNC sessions: One-time sessions that live as long as the VNC connection from the client is kept up, and persistent sessions that live until they are explicitly terminated.

A VNC server can offer both kinds of sessions simultaneously on different ports, but an open session cannot be converted from one type to the other.

11 File Copying with RSync

Today, a typical user has several computers: home and workplace machines, a laptop, a smartphone or a tablet. This makes the task of keeping files and documents in synchronization across multiple devices all the more important.

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