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Applies to SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8

2 Tutorials Edit source

This section contains tutorials for common tasks for your SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 cloud.

2.1 SUSE OpenStack Cloud Quickstart Guide Edit source

2.1.1 Introduction Edit source

This document provides simplified instructions for installing and setting up a SUSE OpenStack Cloud. Use this quickstart guide to build testing, demonstration, and lab-type environments., rather than production installations. When you complete this quickstart process, you will have a fully functioning SUSE OpenStack Cloud demo environment.

Note
Note

These simplified instructions are intended for testing or demonstration. Instructions for production installations are in Book “Installing with Cloud Lifecycle Manager.

2.1.2 Overview of components Edit source

The following are short descriptions of the components that SUSE OpenStack Cloud employs when installing and deploying your cloud.

Ansible.  Ansible is a powerful configuration management tool used by SUSE OpenStack Cloud to manage nearly all aspects of your cloud infrastructure. Most commands in this quickstart guide execute Ansible scripts, known as playbooks. You will run playbooks that install packages, edit configuration files, manage network settings, and take care of the general administration tasks required to get your cloud up and running.

Get more information on Ansible at https://www.ansible.com/.

Cobbler.  Cobbler is another third-party tool used by SUSE OpenStack Cloud to deploy operating systems across the physical servers that make up your cloud. Find more info at http://cobbler.github.io/.

Git.  Git is the version control system used to manage the configuration files that define your cloud. Any changes made to your cloud configuration files must be committed to the locally hosted git repository to take effect. Read more information on Git at https://git-scm.com/.

2.1.3 Preparation Edit source

Successfully deploying a SUSE OpenStack Cloud environment is a large endeavor, but it is not complicated. For a successful deployment, you must put a number of components in place before rolling out your cloud. Most importantly, a basic SUSE OpenStack Cloud requires the proper network infrastrucure. Because SUSE OpenStack Cloud segregates the network traffic of many of its elements, if the necessary networks, routes, and firewall access rules are not in place, communication required for a successful deployment will not occur.

2.1.4 Getting Started Edit source

When your network infrastructure is in place, go ahead and set up the Cloud Lifecycle Manager. This is the server that will orchestrate the deployment of the rest of your cloud. It is also the server you will run most of your deployment and management commands on.

Set up the Cloud Lifecycle Manager

  1. Download the installation media

    Obtain a copy of the SUSE OpenStack Cloud installation media, and make sure that it is accessible by the server that you are installing it on. Your method of doing this may vary. For instance, some may choose to load the installation ISO on a USB drive and physically attach it to the server, while others may run the IPMI Remote Console and attach the ISO to a virtual disc drive.

  2. Install the operating system

    1. Boot your server, using the installation media as the boot source.

    2. Choose "install" from the list of options and choose your preferred keyboard layout, location, language, and other settings.

    3. Set the address, netmask, and gateway for the primary network interface.

    4. Create a root user account.

    Proceed with the OS installation. After the installation is complete and the server has rebooted into the new OS, log in with the user account you created.

  3. Configure the new server

    1. SSH to your new server, and set a valid DNS nameserver in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    2. Set the environment variable LC_ALL:

      export LC_ALL=C

    You now have a server running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES). The next step is to configure this machine as a Cloud Lifecycle Manager.

  4. Configure the Cloud Lifecycle Manager

    The installation media you used to install the OS on the server also has the files that will configure your cloud. You need to mount this installation media on your new server in order to use these files.

    1. Using the URL that you obtained the SUSE OpenStack Cloud installation media from, run wget to download the ISO file to your server:

      wget INSTALLATION_ISO_URL
    2. Now mount the ISO in the /media/cdrom/ directory

      sudo mount INSTALLATION_ISO /media/cdrom/
    3. Unpack the tar file found in the /media/cdrom/ardana/ directory where you just mounted the ISO:

      tar xvf /media/cdrom/ardana/ardana-x.x.x-x.tar
    4. Now you will install and configure all the components needed to turn this server into a Cloud Lifecycle Manager. Run the ardana-init.bash script from the uncompressed tar file:

      ~/ardana-x.x.x/ardana-init.bash

      The ardana-init.bash script prompts you to enter an optional SSH passphrase. This passphrase protects the RSA key used to SSH to the other cloud nodes. This is an optional passphrase, and you can skip it by pressing Enter at the prompt.

      The ardana-init.bash script automatically installs and configures everything needed to set up this server as the lifecycle manager for your cloud.

      When the script has finished running, you can proceed to the next step, editing your input files.

  5. Edit your input files

    Your SUSE OpenStack Cloud input files are where you define your cloud infrastructure and how it runs. The input files define options such as which servers are included in your cloud, the type of disks the servers use, and their network configuration. The input files also define which services your cloud will provide and use, the network architecture, and the storage backends for your cloud.

    There are several example configurations, which you can find on your Cloud Lifecycle Manager in the ~/openstack/examples/ directory.

    1. The simplest way to set up your cloud is to copy the contents of one of these example configurations to your ~/openstack/mycloud/definition/ directory. You can then edit the copied files and define your cloud.

      cp -r ~/openstack/examples/CHOSEN_EXAMPLE/* ~/openstack/my_cloud/definition/
    2. Edit the files in your ~/openstack/my_cloud/definition/ directory to define your cloud.

  6. Commit your changes

    When you finish editing the necessary input files, stage them, and then commit the changes to the local Git repository:

    cd ~/openstack/ardana/ansible
    git add -A
    git commit -m "My commit message"
  7. Image your servers

    Now that you have finished editing your input files, you can deploy the configuration to the servers that will comprise your cloud.

    1. Image the servers. You will install the SLES operating system across all the servers in your cloud, using Ansible playbooks to trigger the process.

    2. The following playbook confirms that your servers are accessible over their IPMI ports, which is a prerequisite for the imaging process:

      ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost bm-power-status.yml
    3. Now validate that your cloud configuration files have proper YAML syntax by running the config-processor-run.yml playbook:

      ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost config-processor-run.yml

      If you receive an error when running the preceeding playbook, one or more of your configuration files has an issue. Refer to the output of the Ansible playbook, and look for clues in the Ansible log file, found at ~/.ansible/ansible.log.

    4. The next step is to prepare your imaging system, Cobbler, to deploy operating systems to all your cloud nodes:

      ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost cobbler-deploy.yml
    5. Now you can image your cloud nodes. You will use an Ansible playbook to trigger Cobbler to deploy operating systems to all the nodes you specified in your input files:

      ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost bm-reimage.yml

      The bm-reimage.yml playbook performs the following operations:

      1. Powers down the servers.

      2. Sets the servers to boot from a network interface.

      3. Powers on the servers and performs a PXE OS installation.

      4. Waits for the servers to power themselves down as part of a successful OS installation. This can take some time.

      5. Sets the servers to boot from their local hard disks and powers on the servers.

      6. Waits for the SSH service to start on the servers and verifies that they have the expected host-key signature.

  8. Deploy your cloud

    Now that your servers are running the SLES operating system, it is time to configure them for the roles they will play in your new cloud.

    1. Prepare the Cloud Lifecycle Manager to deploy your cloud configuration to all the nodes:

      ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost ready-deployment.yml

      NOTE: The preceding playbook creates a new directory, ~/scratch/ansible/next/ardana/ansible/, from which you will run many of the following commands.

    2. (Optional) If you are reusing servers or disks to run your cloud, you can wipe the disks of your newly imaged servers by running the wipe_disks.yml playbook:

      cd ~/scratch/ansible/next/ardana/ansible/
      ansible-playbook -i hosts/verb_hosts wipe_disks.yml

      The wipe_disks.yml playbook removes any existing data from the drives on your new servers. This can be helpful if you are reusing servers or disks. This action will not affect the OS partitions on the servers.

      Note
      Note

      The wipe_disks.yml playbook is only meant to be run on systems immediately after running bm-reimage.yml. If used for any other case, it may not wipe all of the expected partitions. For example, if site.yml fails, you cannot start fresh by running wipe_disks.yml. You must bm-reimage the node first and then run wipe_disks.

    3. Now it is time to deploy your cloud. Do this by running the site.yml playbook, which pushes the configuration you defined in the input files out to all the servers that will host your cloud.

      cd ~/scratch/ansible/next/ardana/ansible/
      ansible-playbook -i hosts/verb_hosts site.yml

      The site.yml playbook installs packages, starts services, configures network interface settings, sets iptables firewall rules, and more. Upon successful completion of this playbook, your SUSE OpenStack Cloud will be in place and in a running state. This playbook can take up to six hours to complete.

  9. SSH to your nodes

    Now that you have successfully run site.yml, your cloud will be up and running. You can verify connectivity to your nodes by connecting to each one by using SSH. You can find the IP addresses of your nodes by viewing the /etc/hosts file.

    For security reasons, you can only SSH to your nodes from the Cloud Lifecycle Manager. SSH connections from any machine other than the Cloud Lifecycle Manager will be refused by the nodes.

    From the Cloud Lifecycle Manager, SSH to your nodes:

    ssh <management IP address of node>

    Also note that SSH is limited to your cloud's management network. Each node has an address on the management network, and you can find this address by reading the /etc/hosts or server_info.yml file.

2.2 Log Management and Integration Edit source

2.2.1 Overview Edit source

SUSE OpenStack Cloud uses the ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) stack for log management across the entire cloud infrastructure. This configuration facilitates simple administration as well as integration with third-party tools. This tutorial covers how to forward your logs to a third-party tool or service, and how to access and search the Elasticsearch log stores through API endpoints.

2.2.2 The ELK stack Edit source

The ELK logging stack consists of the Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana elements:

  • Logstash.  Logstash reads the log data from the services running on your servers, and then aggregates and ships that data to a storage location. By default, Logstash sends the data to the Elasticsearch indexes, but it can also be configured to send data to other storage and indexing tools such as Splunk.

  • Elasticsearch.  Elasticsearch is the storage and indexing component of the ELK stack. It stores and indexes the data received from Logstash. Indexing makes your log data searchable by tools designed for querying and analyzing massive sets of data. You can query the Elasticsearch datasets from the built-in Kibana console, a third-party data analysis tool, or through the Elasticsearch API (covered later).

  • Kibana.  Kibana provides a simple and easy-to-use method for searching, analyzing, and visualizing the log data stored in the Elasticsearch indexes. You can customize the Kibana console to provide graphs, charts, and other visualizations of your log data.

2.2.3 Using the Elasticsearch API Edit source

You can query the Elasticsearch indexes through various language-specific APIs, as well as directly over the IP address and port that Elasticsearch exposes on your implementation. By default, Elasticsearch presents from localhost, port 9200. You can run queries directly from a terminal using curl. For example:

curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/_search?q=tag:yourSearchTag'

The preceding command searches all indexes for all data with the "yourSearchTag" tag.

You can also use the Elasticsearch API from outside the logging node. This method connects over the Kibana VIP address, port 5601, using basic http authentication. For example, you can use the following command to perform the same search as the preceding search:

curl -u kibana:<password> kibana_vip:5601/_search?q=tag:yourSearchTag

You can further refine your search to a specific index of data, in this case the "elasticsearch" index:

curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/elasticsearch/_search?q=tag:yourSearchTag'

The search API is RESTful, so responses are provided in JSON format. Here's a sample (though empty) response:

{
    "took":13,
    "timed_out":false,
    "_shards":{
        "total":45,
        "successful":45,
        "failed":0
    },
    "hits":{
        "total":0,
        "max_score":null,
        "hits":[]
    }
}

2.2.4 For More Information Edit source

You can find more detailed Elasticsearch API documentation at https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/search.html.

Review the Elasticsearch Python API documentation at the following sources: http://elasticsearch-py.readthedocs.io/en/master/api.html

Read the Elasticsearch Java API documentation at https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/client/java-api/current/index.html.

2.2.5 Forwarding your logs Edit source

You can configure Logstash to ship your logs to an outside storage and indexing system, such as Splunk. Setting up this configuration is as simple as editing a few configuration files, and then running the Ansible playbooks that implement the changes. Here are the steps.

  1. Begin by logging in to the Cloud Lifecycle Manager.

  2. Verify that the logging system is up and running:

    cd ~/scratch/ansible/next/ardana/ansible
    ansible-playbook -i hosts/verb_hosts logging-status.yml

    When the preceding playbook completes without error, proceed to the next step.

  3. Edit the Logstash configuration file, found at the following location:

    ~/openstack/ardana/ansible/roles/logging-server/templates/logstash.conf.j2

    Near the end of the Logstash configuration file, you will find a section for configuring Logstash output destinations. The following example demonstrates the changes necessary to forward your logs to an outside server (changes in bold). The configuration block sets up a TCP connection to the destination server's IP address over port 5514.

    # Logstash outputs
        output {
          # Configure Elasticsearch output
          # http://www.elastic.co/guide/en/logstash/current/plugins-outputs-elasticsearch.html
          elasticsearch {
            index => "%{[@metadata][es_index]}
            hosts => ["{{ elasticsearch_http_host }}:{{ elasticsearch_http_port }}"]
            flush_size => {{ logstash_flush_size }}
            idle_flush_time => 5
            workers => {{ logstash_threads }}
          }
            # Forward Logs to Splunk on TCP port 5514 which matches the one specified in Splunk Web UI.
          tcp {
            mode => "client"
            host => "<Enter Destination listener IP address>"
            port => 5514
          }
        }

    Note that Logstash can forward log data to multiple sources, so there is no need to remove or alter the Elasticsearch section in the preceding file. However, if you choose to stop forwarding your log data to Elasticsearch, you can do so by removing the related section in this file, and then continue with the following steps.

  4. Commit your changes to the local git repository:

    cd ~/openstack/ardana/ansible
    git add -A
    git commit -m "Your commit message"
  5. Run the configuration processor to check the status of all configuration files:

    ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost config-processor-run.yml
  6. Run the ready-deployment playbook:

    ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost ready-deployment.yml
  7. Implement the changes to the Logstash configuration file:

    cd ~/scratch/ansible/next/ardana/ansible
    ansible-playbook -i hosts/verb_hosts logging-server-configure.yml

Please note that configuring the receiving service will vary from product to product. Consult the documentation for your particular product for instructions on how to set it up to receive log files from Logstash.

2.3 Integrating Your Logs with Splunk Edit source

2.3.1 Integrating with Splunk Edit source

The SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 logging solution provides a flexible and extensible framework to centralize the collection and processing of logs from all nodes in your cloud. The logs are shipped to a highly available and fault-tolerant cluster where they are transformed and stored for better searching and reporting. The SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 logging solution uses the ELK stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana) as a production-grade implementation and can support other storage and indexing technologies.

You can configure Logstash, the service that aggregates and forwards the logs to a searchable index, to send the logs to a third-party target, such as Splunk.

For how to integrate the SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 centralized logging solution with Splunk, including the steps to set up and forward logs, please refer to Section 3.1, “Splunk Integration”.

2.4 Integrating SUSE OpenStack Cloud with an LDAP System Edit source

You can configure your SUSE OpenStack Cloud cloud to work with an outside user authentication source such as Active Directory or OpenLDAP. Keystone, the SUSE OpenStack Cloud identity service, functions as the first stop for any user authorization/authentication requests. Keystone can also function as a proxy for user account authentication, passing along authentication and authorization requests to any LDAP-enabled system that has been configured as an outside source. This type of integration lets you use an existing user-management system such as Active Directory and its powerful group-based organization features as a source for permissions in SUSE OpenStack Cloud.

Upon successful completion of this tutorial, your cloud will refer user authentication requests to an outside LDAP-enabled directory system, such as Microsoft Active Directory or OpenLDAP.

2.4.1 Configure your LDAP source Edit source

To configure your SUSE OpenStack Cloud cloud to use an outside user-management source, perform the following steps:

  1. Make sure that the LDAP-enabled system you plan to integrate with is up and running and accessible over the necessary ports from your cloud management network.

  2. Edit the /var/lib/ardana/openstack/my_cloud/config/keystone/keystone.conf.j2 file and set the following options:

    domain_specific_drivers_enabled = True
    domain_configurations_from_database = False
  3. Create a YAML file in the /var/lib/ardana/openstack/my_cloud/config/keystone/ directory that defines your LDAP connection. You can make a copy of the sample Keystone-LDAP configuration file, and then edit that file with the details of your LDAP connection.

    The following example copies the keystone_configure_ldap_sample.yml file and names the new file keystone_configure_ldap_my.yml:

    ardana > cp /var/lib/ardana/openstack/my_cloud/config/keystone/keystone_configure_ldap_sample.yml \
      /var/lib/ardana/openstack/my_cloud/config/keystone/keystone_configure_ldap_my.yml
  4. Edit the new file to define the connection to your LDAP source. This guide does not provide comprehensive information on all aspects of the keystone_configure_ldap.yml file. Find a complete list of Keystone/LDAP configuration file options at: https://github.com/openstack/keystone/blob/stable/pike/etc/keystone.conf.sample

    The following file illustrates an example Keystone configuration that is customized for an Active Directory connection.

    keystone_domainldap_conf:
    
        # CA certificates file content.
        # Certificates are stored in Base64 PEM format. This may be entire LDAP server
        # certificate (in case of self-signed certificates), certificate of authority
        # which issued LDAP server certificate, or a full certificate chain (Root CA
        # certificate, intermediate CA certificate(s), issuer certificate).
        #
        cert_settings:
          cacert: |
            -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    
            certificate appears here
    
            -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    
        # A domain will be created in MariaDB with this name, and associated with ldap back end.
        # Installer will also generate a config file named /etc/keystone/domains/keystone.<domain_name>.conf
        #
        domain_settings:
          name: ad
          description: Dedicated domain for ad users
    
        conf_settings:
          identity:
             driver: ldap
    
    
          # For a full list and description of ldap configuration options, please refer to
          # http://docs.openstack.org/liberty/config-reference/content/keystone-configuration-file.html.
          #
          # Please note:
          #  1. LDAP configuration is read-only. Configuration which performs write operations (i.e. creates users, groups, etc)
          #     is not supported at the moment.
          #  2. LDAP is only supported for identity operations (reading users and groups from LDAP). Assignment
          #     operations with LDAP (i.e. managing roles, projects) are not supported.
          #  3. LDAP is configured as non-default domain. Configuring LDAP as a default domain is not supported.
          #
    
          ldap:
            url: ldap://YOUR_COMPANY_AD_URL
            suffix: YOUR_COMPANY_DC
            query_scope: sub
            user_tree_dn: CN=Users,YOUR_COMPANY_DC
            user : CN=admin,CN=Users,YOUR_COMPANY_DC
            password: REDACTED
            user_objectclass: user
            user_id_attribute: cn
            user_name_attribute: cn
            group_tree_dn: CN=Users,YOUR_COMPANY_DC
            group_objectclass: group
            group_id_attribute: cn
            group_name_attribute: cn
            use_pool: True
            user_enabled_attribute: userAccountControl
            user_enabled_mask: 2
            user_enabled_default: 512
            use_tls: True
            tls_req_cert: demand
            # if you are configuring multiple LDAP domains, and LDAP server certificates are issued
            # by different authorities, make sure that you place certs for all the LDAP backend domains in the
            # cacert parameter as seen in this sample yml file so that all the certs are combined in a single CA file
            # and every LDAP domain configuration points to the combined CA file.
            # Note:
            # 1. Please be advised that every time a new ldap domain is configured, the single CA file gets overwritten
            # and hence ensure that you place certs for all the LDAP backend domains in the cacert parameter.
            # 2. There is a known issue on one cert per CA file per domain when the system processes
            # concurrent requests to multiple LDAP domains. Using the single CA file with all certs combined
            # shall get the system working properly.
    
            tls_cacertfile: /etc/keystone/ssl/certs/all_ldapdomains_ca.pem
  5. Add your new file to the local Git repository and commit the changes.

    ardana > cd ~/openstack
    ardana > git checkout site
    ardana > git add -A
    ardana > git commit -m "Adding LDAP server integration config"
  6. Run the configuration processor and deployment preparation playbooks to validate the YAML files and prepare the environment for configuration.

    ardana > cd ~/openstack/ardana/ansible
    ardana > ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost config-processor-run.yml
    ardana > ansible-playbook -i hosts/localhost ready-deployment.yml
  7. Run the Keystone reconfiguration playbook to implement your changes, passing the newly created YAML file as an argument to the -e@FILE_PATH parameter:

    ardana > cd ~/scratch/ansible/next/ardana/ansible
    ardana > ansible-playbook -i hosts/verb_hosts keystone-reconfigure.yml \
      -e@/var/lib/ardana/openstack/my_cloud/config/keystone/keystone_configure_ldap_my.yml

    To integrate your SUSE OpenStack Cloud cloud with multiple domains, repeat these steps starting from Step 3 for each domain.

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