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documentation.suse.com / SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 文档 / System Analysis and Tuning Guide / About This Guide
Applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15

About This Guide

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is used for a broad range of usage scenarios in enterprise and scientific data centers. SUSE has ensured SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is set up in a way that it accommodates different operation purposes with optimal performance. However, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server must meet very different demands when employed on a number crunching server compared to a file server, for example.

It is not possible to ship a distribution that is optimized for all workloads. Different workloads vary substantially in some aspects. Most important among those are I/O access patterns, memory access patterns, and process scheduling. A behavior that perfectly suits a certain workload might reduce performance of another workload. For example, I/O-intensive tasks, such as handling database requests, usually have completely different requirements than CPU-intensive tasks, such as video encoding. The versatility of Linux makes it possible to configure your system in a way that it brings out the best in each usage scenario.

This manual introduces you to means to monitor and analyze your system. It describes methods to manage system resources and to tune your system. This guide does not offer recipes for special scenarios, because each server has got its own different demands. It rather enables you to thoroughly analyze your servers and make the most out of them.

Part I, “Basics”

Tuning a system requires a carefully planned proceeding. Learn which steps are necessary to successfully improve your system.

Part II, “System Monitoring”

Linux offers a large variety of tools to monitor almost every aspect of the system. Learn how to use these utilities and how to read and analyze the system log files.

Part III, “Kernel Monitoring”

The Linux kernel itself offers means to examine every nut, bolt and screw of the system. This part introduces you to SystemTap, a scripting language for writing kernel modules that can be used to analyze and filter data. Collect debugging information and find bottlenecks by using kernel probes and Perf. Last, monitor applications with Oprofile.

Part IV, “Resource Management”

Learn how to set up a tailor-made system fitting exactly the server's need. Get to know how to use power management while at the same time keeping the performance of a system at a level that matches the current requirements.

Part V, “Kernel Tuning”

The Linux kernel can be optimized either by using sysctl, via the /proc and /sys file systems or by kernel command line parameters. This part covers tuning the I/O performance and optimizing the way how Linux schedules processes. It also describes basic principles of memory management and shows how memory management can be fine-tuned to suit needs of specific applications and usage patterns. Furthermore, it describes how to optimize network performance.

Part VI, “Handling System Dumps”

This part enables you to analyze and handle application or system crashes. It introduces tracing tools such as strace or ltrace and describes how to handle system crashes using Kexec and Kdump.

Tip: Getting the SUSE Linux Enterprise SDK

The SDK is a module for SUSE Linux Enterprise and is available via an online channel from the SUSE Customer Center. Alternatively, go to http://download.suse.com/, search for SUSE Linux Enterprise Software Development Kit and download it from there. Refer to 第 18 章 “安装模块、扩展和第三方附加产品 for details.

1 可用文档

Note: 在线文档和最新更新

我们的产品文档可从 http://www.suse.com/documentation/ 获取,您也可以在此处找到最新更新,以及浏览或下载各种格式的文档。

此外,您安装的系统的 /usr/share/doc/manual 下通常会提供产品文档。



此《快速入门》引导您逐步完成安装 SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server 15 的过程。





Virtualization Guide

概述虚拟化技术,并介绍虚拟化的统一接口 libvirt,以及有关特定超级管理程序的详细信息。


提供有关如何在 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 上管理储存设备的信息。

AutoYaST Guide

AutoYaST 系统会使用包含安装和配置数据的 AutoYaST 配置文件,让您以无人照管方式批量部署 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 系统。该手册将引导您完成自动安装的基本步骤,包括准备、安装和配置。

Security and Hardening Guide

介绍系统安全的基本概念,包括本地安全方面和网络安全方面。说明如何使用产品固有的安全软件(例如 AppArmor),或者能够可靠收集有关任何安全相关事件的信息的审核系统。

System Analysis and Tuning Guide


RMT Guide

储存库管理工具管理员指南。储存库管理工具是 SUSE Customer Center 及储存库与注册目标的代理系统。了解如何安装和配置本地 RMT 服务器、镜像和管理储存库、管理客户端计算机,以及配置客户端以使用 RMT。

GNOME 用户指南

介绍 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 的 GNOME 桌面。指导您使用和配置桌面并帮助您执行关键任务。它主要面向想要有效使用 GNOME 作为其默认桌面的最终用户。

2 反馈


Bug 和增强请求

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有关 openSUSE 的帮助由社区提供。有关更多信息,请参考 https://en.opensuse.org/Portal:Support

要报告产品组件的 Bug,请访问 https://scc.suse.com/support/requests 并登录,然后单击新建


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3 文档约定


  • /etc/passwd:目录名称和文件名


  • PATH:环境变量 PATH

  • ls--help:命令、选项和参数

  • user:用户和组

  • package name :包名称

  • AltAltF1:按键或组合键;这些键以大写形式显示,如在键盘上一样

  • 文件文件 › 另存为:菜单项,按钮

  • AMD/Intel 本段内容仅与 AMD64/Intel 64 体系结构相关。箭头标记文本块的开始位置和结束位置。

    IBM Z, POWER 本段内容仅与 IBM ZPOWER 体系结构相关。箭头标记文本块的开始位置和结束位置。

  • 跳舞的企鹅企鹅一章,↑其他手册):此内容参见自其他手册中的一章。

  • 必须使用 root 特权运行的命令。您往往还可以在这些命令前加上 sudo 命令,以非特权用户身份来运行它们。

    root # command
    tux > sudo command
  • 可以由非特权用户运行的命令。

    tux > command
  • 注意

    Warning: 警告通知


    Important: 重要通知


    Note: 注意通知


    Tip: 提示通知


4 Product Life Cycle and Support

SUSE products are supported for up to 13 years. To check the life cycle dates for your product, see https://www.suse.com/lifecycle/.

For SUSE Linux Enterprise, the following life cycles and release cycles apply:

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server has a 13-year life cycle: 10 years of general support and three years of extended support.

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop has a 10-year life cycle: seven years of general support and three years of extended support.

  • Major releases are published every four years. Service packs are published every 12-14 months.

  • SUSE supports previous SUSE Linux Enterprise service packs for six months after the release of a new service pack.

For some products, Long Term Service Pack Support (LTSS) is available. Find information about our support policy and options at https://www.suse.com/support/policy.html and https://www.suse.com/support/programs/long-term-service-pack-support.html.

Modules have a different life cycle, update policy, and update timeline than their base products. Modules contain software packages and are fully supported parts of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. For more information, see the Modules and Extensions Quick Start.

4.1 Support Statement for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

To receive support, you need an appropriate subscription with SUSE. To view the specific support offerings available to you, go to https://www.suse.com/support/ and select your product.

The support levels are defined as follows:


Problem determination, which means technical support designed to provide compatibility information, usage support, ongoing maintenance, information gathering and basic troubleshooting using available documentation.


Problem isolation, which means technical support designed to analyze data, reproduce customer problems, isolate problem area and provide a resolution for problems not resolved by Level 1 or prepare for Level 3.


Problem resolution, which means technical support designed to resolve problems by engaging engineering to resolve product defects which have been identified by Level 2 Support.

For contracted customers and partners, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is delivered with L3 support for all packages, except for the following:

  • Technology Previews

  • Sound, graphics, fonts and artwork.

  • Packages that require an additional customer contract.

  • Some packages shipped as part of the module Workstation Extension are L2-supported only.

  • Packages with names ending in -devel (containing header files and similar developer resources) will only be supported together with their main packages.

SUSE will only support the usage of original packages. That is, packages that are unchanged and not recompiled.

4.2 Technology Previews

Technology previews are packages, stacks, or features delivered by SUSE to provide glimpses into upcoming innovations. The previews are included for your convenience to give you the chance to test new technologies within your environment. We would appreciate your feedback! If you test a technology preview, please contact your SUSE representative and let them know about your experience and use cases. Your input is helpful for future development.

However, technology previews come with the following limitations:

  • Technology previews are still in development. Therefore, they may be functionally incomplete, unstable, or in other ways not suitable for production use.

  • Technology previews are not supported.

  • Technology previews may only be available for specific hardware architectures.

  • Details and functionality of technology previews are subject to change. As a result, upgrading to subsequent releases of a technology preview may be impossible and require a fresh installation.

  • Technology previews can be dropped at any time. For example, if SUSE discovers that a preview does not meet the customer or market needs, or does not prove to comply with enterprise standards. SUSE does not commit to providing a supported version of such technologies in the future.

For an overview of technology previews shipped with your product, see the release notes at https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/.