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SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3

Administration Guide

Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.

Publication Date: July 04, 2021
About This Guide
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Convenciones de la documentación
About the Making of This Documentation
I Common Tasks
1 Bash and Bash Scripts
1.1 What is The Shell?
1.2 Writing Shell Scripts
1.3 Redirecting Command Events
1.4 Using Aliases
1.5 Using Variables in Bash
1.6 Grouping and Combining Commands
1.7 Working with Common Flow Constructs
1.8 For More Information
2 sudo
2.1 Basic sudo Usage
2.2 Configuring sudo
2.3 Common Use Cases
2.4 More Information
3 YaST Online Update
3.1 The Online Update Dialog
3.2 Installing Patches
3.3 Automatic Online Update
4 YaST
4.1 Advanced Key Combinations
5 YaST in Text Mode
5.1 Navigation in Modules
5.2 Advanced Key Combinations
5.3 Restriction of Key Combinations
5.4 YaST Command Line Options
6 Managing Software with Command Line Tools
6.1 Using Zypper
6.2 RPM—the Package Manager
7 System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper
7.1 Default Setup
7.2 Using Snapper to Undo Changes
7.3 System Rollback by Booting from Snapshots
7.4 Creating and Modifying Snapper Configurations
7.5 Manually Creating and Managing Snapshots
7.6 Automatic Snapshot Clean-Up
7.7 Frequently Asked Questions
8 Remote Access with VNC
8.1 The vncviewer Client
8.2 One-time VNC Sessions
8.3 Persistent VNC Sessions
8.4 Encrypted VNC Communication
9 File Copying with RSync
9.1 Conceptual Overview
9.2 Basic Syntax
9.3 Copying Files and Directories Locally
9.4 Copying Files and Directories Remotely
9.5 Configuring and Using an Rsync Server
9.6 For More Information
II Booting a Linux System
10 Introduction to the Booting Process
10.1 The Linux Boot Process
10.2 initramfs
10.3 Init on initramfs
11 UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)
11.1 Secure Boot
11.2 For More Information
12 The Boot Loader GRUB 2
12.1 Main Differences between GRUB Legacy and GRUB 2
12.2 Configuration File Structure
12.3 Configuring the Boot Loader with YaST
12.4 Differences in Terminal Usage on z Systems
12.5 Helpful GRUB 2 Commands
12.6 More Information
13 The systemd Daemon
13.1 The systemd Concept
13.2 Basic Usage
13.3 System Start and Target Management
13.4 Managing Services with YaST
13.5 Customization of systemd
13.6 Advanced Usage
13.7 More Information
III System
14 32-Bit and 64-Bit Applications in a 64-Bit System Environment
14.1 Runtime Support
14.2 Software Development
14.3 Software Compilation on Biarch Platforms
14.4 Kernel Specifications
15 journalctl: Query the systemd Journal
15.1 Making the Journal Persistent
15.2 journalctl Useful Switches
15.3 Filtering the Journal Output
15.4 Investigating systemd Errors
15.5 Journald Configuration
15.6 Using YaST to Filter the systemd Journal
16 Basic Networking
16.1 IP Addresses and Routing
16.2 IPv6—The Next Generation Internet
16.3 Name Resolution
16.4 Configuring a Network Connection with YaST
16.5 Configuring a Network Connection Manually
16.6 Basic Router Setup
16.7 Setting Up Bonding Devices
16.8 Setting Up Team Devices for Network Teaming
16.9 Software-Defined Networking with Open vSwitch
17 Printer Operation
17.1 The CUPS Workflow
17.2 Methods and Protocols for Connecting Printers
17.3 Installing the Software
17.4 Network Printers
17.5 Configuring CUPS with Command Line Tools
17.6 Printing from the Command Line
17.7 Special Features in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
17.8 Troubleshooting
18 The X Window System
18.1 Installing and Configuring Fonts
18.2 For More Information
19 Accessing File Systems with FUSE
19.1 Configuring FUSE
19.2 Mounting an NTFS Partition
19.3 For More Information
20 Managing Kernel Modules
20.1 Listing Loaded Modules with lsmod and modinfo
20.2 Adding and Removing Kernel Modules
21 Dynamic Kernel Device Management with udev
21.1 The /dev Directory
21.2 Kernel uevents and udev
21.3 Drivers, Kernel Modules and Devices
21.4 Booting and Initial Device Setup
21.5 Monitoring the Running udev Daemon
21.6 Influencing Kernel Device Event Handling with udev Rules
21.7 Persistent Device Naming
21.8 Files used by udev
21.9 For More Information
22 Live Patching the Linux Kernel Using kGraft
22.1 Advantages of kGraft
22.2 Low-level Function of kGraft
22.3 Installing kGraft Patches
22.4 Patch Lifecycle
22.5 Removing a kGraft Patch
22.6 Stuck Kernel Execution Threads
22.7 The kgr Tool
22.8 Scope of kGraft Technology
22.9 Scope of SLE Live Patching
22.10 Interaction with the Support Processes
23 Special System Features
23.1 Information about Special Software Packages
23.2 Virtual Consoles
23.3 Keyboard Mapping
23.4 Language and Country-Specific Settings
IV Services
24 Time Synchronization with NTP
24.1 Configuring an NTP Client with YaST
24.2 Manually Configuring NTP in the Network
24.3 Dynamic Time Synchronization at Runtime
24.4 Setting Up a Local Reference Clock
24.5 Clock Synchronization to an External Time Reference (ETR)
25 The Domain Name System
25.1 DNS Terminology
25.2 Installation
25.3 Configuration with YaST
25.4 Starting the BIND Name Server
25.5 The /etc/named.conf Configuration File
25.6 Zone Files
25.7 Dynamic Update of Zone Data
25.8 Secure Transactions
25.9 DNS Security
25.10 For More Information
26 DHCP
26.1 Configuring a DHCP Server with YaST
26.2 DHCP Software Packages
26.3 The DHCP Server dhcpd
26.4 For More Information
27 Sharing File Systems with NFS
27.1 Terminology
27.2 Installing NFS Server
27.3 Configuring NFS Server
27.4 Configuring Clients
27.5 For More Information
28 Samba
28.1 Terminology
28.2 Installing a Samba Server
28.3 Starting and Stopping Samba
28.4 Configuring a Samba Server
28.5 Configuring Clients
28.6 Samba as Login Server
28.7 Samba Server in the Network with Active Directory
28.8 Advanced Topics
28.9 For More Information
29 On-Demand Mounting with Autofs
29.1 Installation
29.2 Configuration
29.3 Operation and Debugging
29.4 Auto-Mounting an NFS Share
29.5 Advanced Topics
30 SLP
30.1 The SLP Front-End slptool
30.2 Providing Services via SLP
30.3 For More Information
31 The Apache HTTP Server
31.1 Quick Start
31.2 Configuring Apache
31.3 Starting and Stopping Apache
31.4 Installing, Activating, and Configuring Modules
31.5 Enabling CGI Scripts
31.6 Setting Up a Secure Web Server with SSL
31.7 Running Multiple Apache Instances on the Same Server
31.8 Avoiding Security Problems
31.9 Troubleshooting
31.10 For More Information
32 Setting Up an FTP Server with YaST
32.1 Starting the FTP Server
32.2 FTP General Settings
32.3 FTP Performance Settings
32.4 Authentication
32.5 Expert Settings
32.6 For More Information
33 The Proxy Server Squid
33.1 Some Facts about Proxy Caches
33.2 System Requirements
33.3 Basic Usage of Squid
33.4 The YaST Squid Module
33.5 The Squid Configuration File
33.6 Configuring a Transparent Proxy
33.7 Using the Squid Cache Manager CGI Interface (cachemgr.cgi)
33.8 squidGuard
33.9 Cache Report Generation with Calamaris
33.10 For More Information
34 Web Based Enterprise Management Using SFCB
34.1 Introduction and Basic Concept
34.2 Setting Up SFCB
34.3 SFCB CIMOM Configuration
34.4 Advanced SFCB Tasks
34.5 For More Information
V Mobile Computers
35 Mobile Computing with Linux
35.1 Laptops
35.2 Mobile Hardware
35.3 Cellular Phones and PDAs
35.4 For More Information
36 Using NetworkManager
36.1 Use Cases for NetworkManager
36.2 Enabling or Disabling NetworkManager
36.3 Configuring Network Connections
36.4 NetworkManager and Security
36.5 Frequently Asked Questions
36.6 Troubleshooting
36.7 For More Information
37 Power Management
37.1 Power Saving Functions
37.2 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
37.3 Rest for the Hard Disk
37.4 Troubleshooting
37.5 For More Information
VI Troubleshooting
38 Help and Documentation
38.1 Documentation Directory
38.2 Man Pages
38.3 Info Pages
38.4 Online Resources
39 Gathering System Information for Support
39.1 Displaying Current System Information
39.2 Collecting System Information with Supportconfig
39.3 Submitting Information to Global Technical Support
39.4 Analyzing System Information
39.5 Gathering Information during the Installation
39.6 Support of Kernel Modules
39.7 For More Information
40 Common Problems and Their Solutions
40.1 Finding and Gathering Information
40.2 Installation Problems
40.3 Boot Problems
40.4 Login Problems
40.5 Network Problems
40.6 Data Problems
40.7 IBM z Systems: Using initrd as a Rescue System
A Documentation Updates
A.1 September 2017 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3)
A.2 November 2016 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2)
A.3 March 2016 (Maintenance Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1)
A.4 December 2015 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1)
A.5 February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance Update)
A.6 October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12)
B An Example Network
C Licencias GNU
C.1 GNU Free Documentation License
List of Figures
3.1 YaST Online Update
5.1 Main Window of YaST in Text Mode
5.2 The Software Installation Module
7.1 Boot Loader: Snapshots
8.1 vncviewer
11.1 Secure Boot Support
11.2 UEFI: Secure Boot Process
12.1 GRUB 2 Boot Editor
12.2 Boot Code Options
12.3 Boot loader Options
12.4 Kernel Parameters
12.5 Code Options
13.1 Services Manager
15.1 YaST systemd Journal
16.1 Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP
16.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Packet
16.3 Configuring Network Settings
16.4 wicked architecture
24.1 YaST: NTP Server
24.2 Advanced NTP Configuration: Security Settings
25.1 DNS Server Installation: Forwarder Settings
25.2 DNS Server Installation: DNS Zones
25.3 DNS Server Installation: Finish Wizard
25.4 DNS Server: Logging
25.5 DNS Server: Zone Editor (Basics)
25.6 DNS Server: Zone Editor (NS Records)
25.7 DNS Server: Zone Editor (MX Records)
25.8 DNS Server: Zone Editor (SOA)
25.9 Adding a Record for a Master Zone
25.10 Adding a Reverse Zone
25.11 Adding a Reverse Record
26.1 DHCP Server: Card Selection
26.2 DHCP Server: Global Settings
26.3 DHCP Server: Dynamic DHCP
26.4 DHCP Server: Start-Up
26.5 DHCP Server: Host Management
26.6 DHCP Server: Chroot Jail and Declarations
26.7 DHCP Server: Selecting a Declaration Type
26.8 DHCP Server: Configuring Subnets
26.9 DHCP Server: TSIG Configuration
26.10 DHCP Server: Interface Configuration for Dynamic DNS
26.11 DHCP Server: Network Interface and Firewall
27.1 NFS Server Configuration Tool
28.1 Determining Windows Domain Membership
28.2 Windows Explorer Advanced Attributes Dialog
28.3 Windows Explorer Directory Listing with Compressed Files
28.4 Adding a New Samba Share with Snapshotting Enabled
28.5 The Previous Versions tab in Windows Explorer
31.1 HTTP Server Wizard: Default Host
31.2 HTTP Server Wizard: Summary
31.3 HTTP Server Configuration: Listen Ports and Addresses
31.4 HTTP Server Configuration: Server Modules
32.1 FTP Server Configuration — Start-Up
34.1 Package Selection for Web-Based Enterprise Management Pattern
34.2 Package selection of additional CIM providers
35.1 Integrating a Mobile Computer in an Existing Environment
36.1 GNOME Network Connections Dialog
39.1 HTML Report Generated by SCA Tool
39.2 HTML Report Generated by SCA Appliance
40.1 Checking Media
40.2 US Keyboard Layout
List of Examples
1.1 A Shell Script Printing a Text
6.1 Zypper—List of Known Repositories
6.2 rpm -q -i wget
6.3 Script to Search for Packages
7.1 Example timeline configuration
12.1 Usage of grub2-mkconfig
12.2 Usage of grub2-mkrescue
12.3 Usage of grub2-script-check
12.4 Usage of grub2-once
13.1 List Active Services
13.2 List Failed Services
13.3 List all Processes Belonging to a Service
16.1 Writing IP Addresses
16.2 Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask
16.3 Sample IPv6 Address
16.4 IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length
16.5 Common Network Interfaces and Some Static Routes
16.6 /etc/resolv.conf
16.7 /etc/hosts
16.8 /etc/networks
16.9 /etc/host.conf
16.10 /etc/nsswitch.conf
16.11 Output of the Command ping
16.12 Configuration for Loadbalancing with Network Teaming
16.13 Configuration for DHCP Network Teaming Device
17.1 Error Message from lpd
17.2 Broadcast from the CUPS Network Server
18.1 Specifying Rendering Algorithms
18.2 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
18.3 Aliases and Family Name Substitutions
18.4 Aliases and Family Names Substitutions
21.1 Example udev Rules
23.1 Entry in /etc/crontab
23.2 /etc/crontab: Remove Time Stamp Files
23.3 ulimit: Settings in ~/.bashrc
25.1 Forwarding Options in named.conf
25.2 A Basic /etc/named.conf
25.3 Entry to Disable Logging
25.4 Zone Entry for example.com
25.5 Zone Entry for example.net
25.6 The /var/lib/named/example.com.zone File
25.7 Reverse Lookup
26.1 The Configuration File /etc/dhcpd.conf
26.2 Additions to the Configuration File
28.1 A CD-ROM Share
28.2 [homes] Share
28.3 Global Section in smb.conf
28.4 Using rpcclient to Request a Windows Server 2012 Share Snapshot
31.1 Basic Examples of Name-Based VirtualHost Entries
31.2 Name-Based VirtualHost Directives
31.3 IP-Based VirtualHost Directives
31.4 Basic VirtualHost Configuration
31.5 VirtualHost CGI Configuration
33.1 A Request With squidclient
33.2 Defining ACL Rules
39.1 Output of hostinfo When Logging In as root

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