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Applies to SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8

12 Using Load Balancing as a Service (LBaaS) Edit source

Load Balancing as a Service (LBaaS) is an advanced networking service that allows load balancing of multi-node environments. It provides the ability to spread requests across multiple servers thereby reducing the load on any single server. The following examples depict usage of the various OpenStack command-line interfaces. The Load Balancer v1 API is also accessible via the Horizon web interface if the v1 API is enabled. The Load Balancer v2 API does not currently have a representative Horizon web interface. The v2 API is targeted to have a Horizon web interface in a future SUSE OpenStack Cloud release. This document describes the configuration for LBaaS v1 and v2.

You can create TLS enabled Load Balancers in SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 by following the steps labeled for TLS Load Balancers. You cannot enable TLS with v1 Load Balancers, only v2 Load Balancers can be enabled with TLS.


When Barbican is not installed by default, you have to manually install Barbican and redeploy neutron.

SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 can support either LBaaS v1 or LBaaS v2 to allow for wide ranging customer requirements. Check with your administrator for the version that is installed before starting your configuration.

12.1 Configuration Edit source

SUSE OpenStack Cloud 8 LBaaS Configuration

Create Private Network for LBaaS

You can create the new network and router by executing the following command from the Cloud Lifecycle Manager or a shell with access to the API nodes.

  • As a cloud admin, run the following commands to create a private network and a router.

    neutron net-create private
    neutron subnet-create --name sub private --gateway
    neutron router-create --distributed false router
    neutron router-interface-add router sub
    neutron router-gateway-set router ext-net

Start Virtual Machines

  1. Add security group rules.


    In the example below the load balancer is tested on port 80. If you need to test the load balancer on a different port you will need to create a security group rule for your port number.

    neutron security-group-rule-create default --protocol icmp
    neutron security-group-rule-create default --protocol tcp --port-range-min 22 --port-range-max 22
    neutron security-group-rule-create default --protocol tcp --port-range-min 80 --port-range-max 80
  2. Start two VMs on the private network.

    ## Start vm1
    nova boot --flavor 1 --image <image> --nic net-id=$(neutron net-list | awk '/private/ {print $2}') vm1
    ## start vm2
    nova boot --flavor 1 --image <image> --nic net-id=$(neutron net-list | awk '/private/ {print $2}') vm2
  3. Check if the VMs are active.

    nova list

For TLS Load Balancers - Create Certificate Chain and Key

  1. From a computer with access to the Barbican and labs API, run the following sequence of commands

    openssl genrsa -des3 -out ca.key 1024
    openssl req -new -x509 -days 3650 -key ca.key -out ca.crt
    openssl x509  -in  ca.crt -out ca.pem
    openssl genrsa -des3 -out ca-int_encrypted.key 1024
    openssl rsa -in ca-int_encrypted.key -out ca-int.key
    openssl req -new -key ca-int.key -out ca-int.csr -subj "/CN=ca-int@acme.com"
    openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in ca-int.csr -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -set_serial 01 -out ca-int.crt
    openssl genrsa -des3 -out server_encrypted.key 1024
    openssl rsa -in server_encrypted.key -out server.key
    openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr -subj "/CN=server@acme.com"
    openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in server.csr -CA ca-int.crt -CAkey ca-int.key -set_serial 01 -out server.crt
  2. For SNI, create another chain with a different CN

    openssl genrsa -des3 -out ca2.key 1024
    openssl req -new -x509 -days 3650 -key ca2.key -out ca2.crt
    openssl x509  -in  ca2.crt -out ca2.pem
    openssl genrsa -des3 -out ca-int_encrypted2.key 1024
    openssl rsa -in ca-int_encrypted2.key -out ca-int2.key
    openssl req -new -key ca-int2.key -out ca-int2.csr -subj "/CN=ca-int-test2@stacme.com"
    openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in ca-int2.csr -CA ca2.crt -CAkey ca2.key -set_serial 01 -out ca-int2.crt
    openssl genrsa -des3 -out server_encrypted2.key 1024
    openssl rsa -in server_encrypted2.key -out server2.key
    openssl req -new -key server2.key -out server2.csr -subj "/CN=test2@stacme.com"
    openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in server2.csr -CA ca-int2.crt -CAkey ca-int2.key -set_serial 01 -out server2.crt

For TLS Load Balancers - Barbican Secrets and Containers

  1. Source the barbican.osrc file from the lifecycle manager node. If you need to perform this operation on a different computer make sure that the OpenStack user account uploading the certs has the keymanager-admin role and is in the admin tenant (see Book “Operations Guide”, Chapter 4 “Managing Identity”, Section 4.5 “Configuring the Identity Service” for a list of roles and tenants). LBaaS will only be able to access certificates stored in the admin tenant.

    barbican secret store --payload-content-type='text/plain' --name='certificate' --payload="$(cat server.crt)"
    barbican secret store --payload-content-type='text/plain' --name='private_key' --payload="$(cat server.key)"
    barbican secret container create --name='tls_container' --type='certificate' --secret="certificate=$(barbican secret list | awk '/ certificate / {print $2}')" --secret="private_key=$(barbican secret list | awk '/ private_key / {print $2}')"

    Do not delete the certificate container associated with your Load Balancer listeners before deleting the Load Balancers themselves. If you delete the certificate first, future operations on your Load Balancers and failover will cease to function.

  2. Add the second certificate chain to test SNI

    barbican secret store --payload-content-type='text/plain' --name='certificate2' --payload="$(cat server2.crt)"
    barbican secret store --payload-content-type='text/plain' --name='private_key2' --payload="$(cat server2.key)"
    barbican secret container create --name='tls_container2' --type='certificate' --secret="certificate=$(barbican secret list | awk '/ certificate2 / {print $2}')" --secret="private_key=$(barbican secret list | awk '/ private_key2 / {print $2}')"
  3. Find the Octavia user id. You will add the id as a barbican acl user for the containers and keys.

    source keystone.osrc
    openstack user list
  4. Get the container and secret hrefs.

    source barbican.osrc
    barbican secret list
    barbican secret container list
  5. Add the acl user obtained in step 3 to the hrefs obtained in step 4 by executing barbican acl user add --user <user id of Octavia> <href>. In the example below, the Octavia user, 66649a0863b64275bc3bffb50e3d76c8 is being added as the Barbican acl user for the containers and keys:

    barbican acl user add --user 66649a0863b64275bc3bffb50e3d76c8
    barbican acl user add --user 66649a0863b64275bc3bffb50e3d76c8
    barbican acl user add --user 66649a0863b64275bc3bffb50e3d76c8

Create Load Balancer v2


The creation of the Load Balancer requires a tenant network and not an external network.

  1. Create the new load balancer using the lbaas-loadbalancer-create command and giving the load balancer a name and subnet.

    source barbican.osrc
    neutron lbaas-loadbalancer-create --name lb sub
  2. Create a new listener. If you are enabling TLS, use the second example, if you are enabling TLS and SNI, use the third example.


    Use unique port numbers for each listener. This example uses 80, 443 and 444.

    1. Create a new listener for the load balancer without TLS using the lbaas-listener-create command and giving the listener the name of the load balancer, the protocol, the protocol port and a name for the listener.

      neutron lbaas-listener-create --loadbalancer lb --protocol HTTP --protocol-port 80 --name listener
    2. Create a new listener for the load balancer with TLS and no SNI using the lbaas-listener-create command and giving the listener the name of the load balancer, the protocol, the protocol port, the name for the listener and the default TLS container.

      neutron lbaas-listener-create --loadbalancer lb --protocol-port 443 --protocol TERMINATED_HTTPS --name tls_listener --default-tls-container-ref=$(barbican secret container list | awk '/ tls_container / {print $2}')
    3. Create a new listener for the load balancer with TLS and SNI using the lbaas-listener-create command and giving the listener the name of the load balancer, the protocol, the protocol port, the name for the listener, the default TLS container and the SNI container.

      neutron lbaas-listener-create --loadbalancer lb --protocol-port 444 --protocol TERMINATED_HTTPS --name sni_listener --default-tls-container-ref=$(barbican secret container list | awk '/ tls_container / {print $2}') --sni-container-refs $(barbican secret container list | awk '/ tls_container2 / {print $2}’
    4. For each listener, create a new pool for the load balancer using the lbaas-pool-create command. Creating a new pool requires the load balancing algorithm, the name of the listener, the protocol and a name for the pool. In the example below we show the command for the listener named listener. You need to repeat that for the tls_listener and sni_listener as well. Make sure to specify different names for each pool.

      neutron lbaas-pool-create --lb-algorithm ROUND_ROBIN --listener listener --protocol HTTP --name <pool name>
    5. You can add members to the load balancer pool by running the lbaas-member-create command. The command requires the subnet, IP address, protocol port and the name of the pool for each virtual machine you would like to include into the load balancer pool. It is important to note that this will need to be repeated for each pool created above.

      neutron lbaas-member-create --subnet sub --address <ip address vm1> --protocol-port <port> <pool name>
      neutron lbaas-member-create --subnet sub --address <ip address vm2> --protocol-port <port> <pool name>
    6. Display the current state of the load balancer and values with lbaas-loadbalancer-show.

      neutron lbaas-loadbalancer-show lb
    7. You need to assign the floating IP to lbaas VIP so it can be accessed from the external network.

      fixedip_vip=$(neutron lbaas-loadbalancer-list | awk '/lb/ {print $6}')
      portuuid_vip=$(neutron port-list | grep $fixedip_vip | awk '{print $2}')
    8. Create and associate the floating IP address to lbaas VIP address.

      neutron floatingip-create ext-net --port-id $portuuid_vip

Create Load Balancer v1


v1 Load Balancers cannot be enabled with TLS.

  1. Create the load balancer pool with lb-pool-create giving it a method, name, protocol and subnet.

    neutron lb-pool-create --lb-method ROUND_ROBIN --name pool --protocol HTTP --subnet-id $(neutron subnet-list | awk '/sub/ {print $2}')
  2. Create load balancing members with lb-member-create providing the IP address, protocol and load balancing pool name to each member.

    neutron lb-member-create --address <ip address vm1> --protocol-port <port> pool
    neutron lb-member-create --address <ip address vm2> --protocol-port <port> pool
  3. Create the vip with lb-vip-create giving it a name, protocol, protocol port and a subnet.

    neutron lb-vip-create --name vip --protocol-port <port> --protocol HTTP --subnet-id $(neutron subnet-list | awk '/sub/ {print $2}') pool
  4. You can check to see if the load balancer is active with lb-vip-show

    neutron lb-vip-show vip

Validate LBaaS Functionality


You should perform the following steps from a node that has a route to the private network. Using the examples from above, should be reachable.

  1. SSH into both vm1 and vm2 in two separate windows and make them listen on your configured port.

  2. From one window.

    ssh cirros@<ip address vm1>
    pass: <password>
  3. From another window.

    ssh cirros@<ip address vm2>
    pass: <password>
  4. Start running web servers on both of the virtual machines.

  5. Create a webserv.sh script with below contents. Use the <port> from the member creation step.

    $ vi webserv.sh
    MYIP=$(/sbin/ifconfig eth0|grep 'inet addr'|awk -F: '{print $2}'| awk '{print $1}');
    while true; do
        echo -e "HTTP/1.0 200 OK
    Welcome to $MYIP" | sudo nc -l -p <port>
    ## Give it Exec rights
    $ chmod 755 webserv.sh
    ## Start webserver
    $ ./webserv.sh
  6. Open a separate window. From the respective source node in external network (in case of accessing LBaaS VIP thorough its FIP) or in private network (in case of no FIP), add the respective IP address to the no_proxy env variable, if required. You can get the VIP from the neutron lbaas-loadbalancer-list for LBaaS v2 and neutron lb-vip-list for LBaaS v1.

  7. Run the following commands to test load balancing. In this example, the VIP IP address is and when executing curl against the VIP, the responses are returned from the load balanced services.

    $ export no_proxy=$no_proxy,
    ## Curl the VIP
    $ curl
    Welcome to
    $ curl
    Welcome to
    $ curl
    Welcome to

Verify SNI

You can verify SNI by running the following command from a node with access to the private network. You can get the VIP from the neutron lbaas-loadbalancer-list for LBaaS v2.

openssl s_client -servername test2@stacme.com -connect <vip of lb>:444

Certificate information will print to the screen. You should verify that the CN matches the CN you passed to -servername. In the example below the CN matches the servername passed from above.


12.2 For More Information Edit source

For more information on the neutron command-line interface (CLI) and load balancing, see the OpenStack networking command-line client reference: http://docs.openstack.org/cli-reference/content/neutronclient_commands.html