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Container Guide

Container Guide

Publication Date: 2023-02-02

1 About this guide

The following guide covers the SUSE Linux Enterprise container ecosystem. Since containers are a constantly evolving technology, the guide is regularly updated, expanded, and improved to reflect the latest technological developments.

2 Introduction to Linux containers

The Linux kernel’s namespaces and kernel control groups features enable the container to be isolated from the rest of the host system and other containers. Linux containers offer a lightweight virtualization method to run multiple isolated environments simultaneously on a single host. Unlike Xen and KVM, where a full guest operating system is executed through a virtualization layer, Linux containers share and directly use the host OS kernel. This reduces the overhead required for accessing the operating system resources and allows for better overall performance compared to a generic Virtual Machine environment.

  • Containers make it possible to isolate applications in self-contained units.

  • Containers provide near-native performance, as the kernel overhead is lower compared to virtualization and emulation.

  • It is possible to control network interfaces and apply resources inside containers through kernel control groups (cgroups).

  • Portability and ease of development for application developers as the container holds all necessary libraries, dependencies, and files needed.

  • Containers run on the host system’s kernel, so the containers have to use the specific kernel version provided by the host.

  • Only Linux-based applications can be containerized.

  • A container encapsulates binaries for a specific architecture (AMD64/Intel 64 or AArch64 for instance). So a container made for AMD64/Intel 64 only runs on a AMD64/Intel 64 system host.

  • Containers in themselves are no more secure than executing binaries outside of a container, and the overall security of containers depends on the host system. While containerized applications can be secured through AA or SELNX profiles, container security require putting in place tools and policies that ensure security of the container infrastructure and applications.

2.1 Key concepts and brief introduction to Podman

Although Docker Open Source Engine is a popular choice for working with images and containers, Podman provides a drop-in replacement for Docker that offers several advantages. While Chapter 11, Podman overview provides more information on Podman, this chapter offers a quick introduction to key concepts and a basic procedure for creating a container image and using it to run a container.

The basic Podman workflow is as follows:

image

Running a container, either on a local machine or cloud service, normally involves the following steps:

  1. Fetch a base image by pulling it from a registry to your local machine.

  2. Create a Dockerfile and use it to build a custom image on top of the base image.

  3. Use the created image to start one or more containers.

To run a container, you need an image. An image includes all dependencies needed to run the application. For example, the SLE SLE BCI-Base image contains the SLE distribution with a minimal package selection.

While it is possible to create an image from scratch, few applications would work in such an empty environment. Thus, using an existing base image is more practical in most situations. A base image has no parent, meaning it is not based on another image.

Although you can use a base image for running containers, the main purpose of base images is to serve as foundations for creating custom images that can run containers with specific applications, servers, services, and so on.

Both base and custom images are usually available through a repository of images called a registry. Unless a registry is explicitly specified, Podman pulls images from the Docker Hub registry. While you can fetch a base image manually, Podman can do that automatically when building a custom image.

To build a custom image, you must create a special file called a Containerfile or Dockerfile containing building instructions. For example, a Dockerfile can contain instructions to update the system software, install the desired application, open specific network ports, run commands, etc.

image

You can build images not only from base images, but also on top of custom images. So you can have an image consisting of multiple layers.

3 SLE Base Container Images

3.1 Introduction to SLE Base Container Images

SLE Base Container Images (SLE BCI) are minimal SLES 15-based images that you can use to develop, deploy, and share applications. There are two types of SLE BCIs:

  • General-purpose SLE BCIs can be used for building custom container images and for deploying applications.

  • Language stack SLE BCIs provide minimal environments for developing and deploying applications in specific programming languages.

3.2 Why SLE Base Container Images

SLE BCIs offer a platform for creating SLES-based custom container images and containerized applications that can be distributed freely. SLE BCIs feature the same predictable enterprise lifecycle as SLES. The SLE_BCI 15 SP3 and SP4 repository (which is a subset of the SLE repository) gives SLE BCIs access to 4000 packages available for the AMD64/Intel 64, AArch64, PowerPC, and IBM Z architectures. The packages in the repository have undergone quality assurance and security audits by SUSE. The container images are FIPS-compliant when running on a host in FIPS mode. In addition to that, SUSE can provide official support for SLE BCIs through SUSE subscription plans.

Security

Each package in the SLE_BCI repository undergoes security audits, and SLE BCIs benefit from the same mechanism of dealing with CVEs as SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. All discovered and fixed vulnerabilities are announced via e-mail, the dedicated CVE pages, and as OVAL and CVRF data. To ensure a secure supply chain, all container images are signed with Notary v1, Podman’s GPG signatures, and Sigstore Cosign.

Stability

Since SLE BCIs are based on SLES, they feature the same level of stability and quality assurance. Similar to SLES, SLE BCIs receive maintenance updates that provide bug fixes, improvements, and security patches.

Tooling and integration

SLE BCIs are designed to provide drop-in replacements for popular container images available on hub.docker.com. You can use the general-purpose SLE BCIs and the tools they put at your disposal to create custom container images, while the language stack SLE BCIs provide a foundation and the required tooling for building containerized applications.

Redistribution

SLE Base Container Images are covered by a permissive EULA that allows you to redistribute custom container images based on a SLE Base Container Image.

3.2.1 Highlights

  • SLE BCIs are fully compatible with SLES, but they do not require a subscription to run and distribute them.

  • SLE BCIs automatically run in FIPS-compatible mode when the host operating system is running in FIPS mode.

  • Each SLE BCI includes the RPM database, which makes it possible to audit the contents of the container image. You can use the RPM database to determine the specific version of the RPM package any given file belongs to. This allows you to ensure that a container image is not susceptible to known and already fixed vulnerabilities.

  • All SLE BCIs (except for those without Zypper) come with the container-suseconnect service. This gives containers that run on a registered SLES host access to the full SLES repositories. container-suseconnect is invoked automatically when you run Zypper for the first time, and the service adds the correct SLES repositories into the running container. On an unregistered SLES host or on a non-SLES host, the service does nothing.

Note
Note: SLE_BCI repository

There is a SLE_BCI repository for each SLE service pack. This means that SLE BCIs based on SP4 have access to the SLE_BCI repository for SP4, all SLE BCIs based on SP5 use the SLE_BCI repository for SP5, and so on. Each SLE_BCI repository contains all SLE packages except kernels, bootloaders, installers (including YaST), desktop environments, and hypervisors (such as KVM and Xen).

3.3 General-purpose SLE BCIs

There are four general purpose SLE BCIs, and each container image comes with a minimum set of packages to keep its size low. You can use a general purpose SLE BCI either as a starting point for building custom container images, or as a platform for deploying specific software.

SUSE offers several general-purpose SLE BCIs that are intended as deployment targets or as foundations for creating customized images: SLE BCI-Base, SLE BCI-Minimal, SLE BCI-Micro, and SLE BCI-BusyBox. These images share the common SLES base, and none of them ship with a specific language or an application stack. All images feature the RPM database (even if the specific image does not include the RPM package manager) that can be used to verify the provenance of every file in the image. Each image includes the SLES certificate bundle, which allows the deployed applications to use the system’s certificates to verify TLS connections.

The table below provides a quick overview of the differences between SLE BCI-Base, SLE BCI-Minimal, SLE BCI-Micro, and SLE BCI-BusyBox.

Table 3.1: Support matrix
FeaturesSLE BCI-BaseSLE BCI-MinimalSLE BCI-MicroSLE BCI-BusyBox

glibc

CA certificates

rpm database

coreutils

busybox

bash

rpm (binary)

zypper

3.3.1 SLE BCI-Base and SLE BCI-Init: When you need flexibility

This SLE BCI comes with the Zypper package manager and the free SLE_BCI repository. This allows you to install software available in the repository and customize the image during the build. The downside is the size of the image. It is the largest of the general-purpose SLE BCIs, so it is not always the best choice for a deployment image.

A variant of SLE BCI-Base called SLE BCI-Init comes with systemd preinstalled. The SLE BCI-Init container image can be useful in scenarios requiring systemd for managing services in a single container.

Important
Important: Using SLE BCI-init with Docker or nerdctl

When using SLE BCI-init container with Docker, you must use the following arguments for SYSTEMD to work correctly in the container:

> docker run -ti --tmpfs /run -v /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:rw --cgroupns=host registry.suse.com/bci/bci-init:latest

In case of nerdctl, the correct command is as follows:

> nerdctl run -ti --env container=containerd --tmpfs /run -v /sys/fs cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:rw --cgroupns=host  registry.suse.com/bci bci-init:latest

To correctly shut down the container use the following command:

> docker kill -s SIGRTMIN+3 CONTAINER_ID

3.3.2 SLE BCI-Minimal: When you do not need Zypper

This is a stripped-down version of the SLE BCI-Base image. SLE BCI-Minimal comes without Zypper, but it does have the RPM package manager installed. This significantly reduces the size of the image. However, while RPM can install and remove packages, it lacks support for repositories and automated dependency resolution. The SLE BCI-Minimal image is therefore intended for creating deployment containers, and then installing the desired RPM packages inside the containers. Although you can install the required dependencies, you need to download and resolve them manually. However, this approach is not recommended as it is prone to errors.

3.3.3 SLE BCI-Micro: When you need to deploy static binaries

This image is similar to SLE BCI-Minimal but without the RPM package manager. The primary use case for the image is deploying static binaries produced externally or during multi-stage builds. As there is no straightforward way to install additional dependencies inside the container image, we recommend deploying a project using the SLE BCI-Minimal image only when the final build artifact bundles all dependencies and has no external runtime requirements (like Python or Ruby).

3.3.4 SLE BCI-BusyBox: When you need the smallest and GPLv3-free image

Similar to SLE BCI-Micro, the SLE BCI-BusyBox image comes with the most basic tools only. However, these tools are provided by the BusyBox project. This has the benefit of further size reduction. Furthermore, the image contains no GPLv3 licensed software. When using the image, keep in mind that there are certain differences between the BusyBox tools and the GNU Coreutils. So scripts written for a system that uses GNU Coreutils may require modification to work with BusyBox.

3.3.5 Approximate sizes

For your reference, the list below provides an approximate size of each SLE BCI. Keep in mind that the provided numbers are rough estimations.

  • SLE BCI-Base ~94 MB

  • SLE BCI-Minimal ~42 MB

  • SLE BCI-Micro ~26 MB

  • SLE BCI-BusyBox ~14 MB

3.4 Language stack SLE BCIs

Language stack SLE BCIs are built on top of the SLE BCI-Base general-purpose SLE BCI. Each container image comes with the Zypper stack and the free SLE_BCI repository. Additionally, each image includes most common tools for building and deploying applications in the specific language environment. This includes tools like a compiler or interpreter as well as the language specific package manager.

Below is an overview of the available language stack SLE BCIs.

python
node
openjdk
openjdk-devel
ruby
golang
dotnet-runtime
dotnet-aspnet
dotnet-sdk

3.5 Important note on status and lifecycle

All container images, except for base, are currently classified as tech preview, and SUSE does not provide official support for them. This information is visible on the web on registry.suse.com. It is also indicated via the com.suse.supportlevel label whether a container image still has the tech preview status. You can use the skopeo and jq utilities to check the status of the desired SLE BCI as follows:

> skopeo inspect docker://registry.suse.com/bci/bci-micro:15.4 | jq '.Labels["com.suse.supportlevel"]'
"techpreview"

> skopeo inspect docker://registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4 | jq '.Labels["com.suse.supportlevel"]'
"l3"

In the example above, the com.suse.supportlevel label is set to techpreview in the bci-micro container image, indicating that the image still has the tech preview status. The bci-base container image, on the other hand, has full L3 support. Unlike like the general purpose SLE BCIs, the language stack SLE BCIs may not follow the lifecycle of the SLES distribution: they are supported as long as the respective language stack receives support. In other words, new versions of SLE BCIs (indicated by the OCI tags) may be released during the lifecycle of a SLES Service Pack, while older versions may become unsupported. Refer to suse.com/lifecycle to find out whether the container in question is still under support.

Important
Important

A SLE Base Container Image is no longer updated after its support period ends. You will not receive any notification when that happens.

3.6 Verifying SLE BCIs with Cosign

To verify a SLE BCI, run Cosign in the container. The command below fetches the signing key from the SUSE server and uses it to verify the latest BCI-Base container image.

> podman run --rm -it gcr.io/projectsigstore/cosign verify \
    --key https://ftp.suse.com/pub/projects/security/keys/container–key.pem \
    registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest | tail -1 | jq

[
  {
    "critical": {
      "identity": {
        "docker-reference": "registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base"
      },
      "image": {
        "docker-manifest-digest": "sha256:52a828600279746ef669cf02a599660cd53faf4b2430a6b211d593c3add047f5"
      },
      "type": "cosign container image signature"
    },
    "optional": {
      "creator": "OBS"
    }
  }
]

The signing key can be used to verify all SLE BCIs, and it also ships with SLE 15 (the /usr/share/container-keys/suse-container-key.pem file).

You can also check BCI container images against rekor, the immutable tamper resistant ledger. For example:

> podman run --rm -it -e COSIGN_EXPERIMENTAL=1 gcr.io/projectsigstore/cosign \
    verify --key https://ftp.suse.com/pub/projects/security/keys/container–key.pem \
    registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest | tail -1 | jq
[
  {
    "critical": {
      "identity": {
        "docker-reference": "registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base"
      },
      "image": {
        "docker-manifest-digest": "sha256:52a828600279746ef669cf02a599660cd53faf4b2430a6b211d593c3add047f5"
      },
      "type": "cosign container image signature"
    },
    "optional": {
      "creator": "OBS"
    }
  }
]

If verification fails, the output of the cosign verify command is similar to the one below.

Error: no matching signatures:
crypto/rsa: verification error
main.go:62: error during command execution: no matching signatures:
crypto/rsa: verification error

3.7 Understanding SLE BCIs

If you have a working knowledge of containers, you will not have any difficulties using SLE BCIs. However, there are certain features that set SLE BCIs apart from similar offerings, like images based on Debian or Alpine Linux. And understanding the specifics can help you to get the most out of SLE BCIs in the shortest time possible.

3.7.1 Package manager

The default package manager in SLES is Zypper. Similar to APT in Debian and APK in Alpine Linux, Zypper offers a command-line interface for all package management tasks. Below is brief overview of commonly used container-related Zypper commands.

Install packages

zypper --non-interactive install PACKAGE_NAME

Add a repository

zypper --non-interactive addrepo REPOSITORY_URL; zypper --non-interactive refresh

Update all packages

zypper --non-interactive update

Remove a package

zypper --non-interactive remove --clean-deps PACKAGE_NAME (the --clean-deps flag ensures that no longer required dependencies are removed as well)

Clean up temporary files

zypper clean

For more information on using Zypper, refer to https://documentation.suse.com/sles-15/html/SUSE Linux Enterprise Server-all/cha-sw-cl.html#sec-zypper.

All the described commands use the --non-interactive flag to skip confirmations, since you cannot approve these manually during container builds. Keep in mind that you must use the flag with any command that modifies the system. Also note that --non-interactive is not a "yes to all" flag. Instead, --non-interactive confirms what is considered to be the intention of the user. For example, an installation command with the --non-interactive option fails if it needs to import new repository signing keys, as that is something that the user must verify themselves.

3.7.2 Using container-suseconnect with SLE BCIs

container-suseconnect is a plugin available in all SLE BCIs that ship with Zypper. When the plugin detects the host’s SUSE Linux Enterprise Server registration credentials, it uses them to give the container access the SUSE Linux Enterprise repositories. This includes additional modules and previous package versions that are not part of the free SLE_BCI repository.

3.8 Using container-suseconnect

If you are running a registered SLES system with Docker, container-suseconnect automatically discovers your credentials and uses the subscription, without requiring any action on your part.

On openSUSE systems with Docker, you must copy the files /etc/SUSEConnect and /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials from a registered SLES machine to your local machine. The /etc/SUSEConnect file is required only if you are using RMT for managing your registration credentials.

3.8.1 Using container-suseconnect on non-SLE hosts or with Podman, Buildah, and nerdctl

You need a registered SLES system to use container-suseconnect on non-SLE hosts or with Podman, Buildah, or with nerdctl. This can be a physical machine, a virtual machine, or the BCI-Base container with SUSEConnect installed and registered.

If you do not use RMT, copy /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials to the development machine. Otherwise, copy both the /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials and /etc/SUSEConnect files.

You can use the following command to obtain SCCcredentials (replace REGISTRATION_CODE with your SUSE Customer Center registration code).

Docker:

docker run --rm registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:latest bash -c \
    "zypper -n in SUSEConnect; SUSEConnect --regcode REGISTRATION_CODE; \
     cat /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials"

Podman:

podman run --rm registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:latest bash -c \
    "zypper -n in SUSEConnect; SUSEConnect --regcode REGISTRATION_CODE; \
     cat /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials"

nerdctl:

nerdctl run --rm registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:latest bash -c \
    "zypper -n in SUSEConnect; SUSEConnect --regcode REGISTRATION_CODE; \
     cat /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials"

If you are running a container based on a SLE BCI, mount SCCcredentials (and optionally /etc/SUSEConnect) in the correct destination. The following example shows how to mount SCCcredentials in the current working directory.

Docker:

docker run -v /path/to/SCCcredentials:/etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials \
    --rm -it --pull=always registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest

Podman:

podman run -v /path/to/SCCcredentials:/etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials \
    --rm -it --pull=always registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest

nerdctl:

nerdctl run -v /path/to/SCCcredentials:/etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials \
    --rm -it --pull=always registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest

Do not copy the SCCcredentials and SUSEConnect files into the container image to avoid inadvertently adding them to the final image. Use secrets instead, as they are only available to a single layer and are not part of the built image. To do this, put a copy of SCCcredentials (and optionally SUSEConnect) somewhere on the file system and modify the RUN instructions that invoke Zypper as follows:

FROM registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest

RUN --mount=type=secret,id=SUSEConnect \
    --mount=type=secret,id=SCCcredentials \
    zypper -n in fluxbox

Docker and Buildah support mounting secrets via the --secret flag as shown below.

Docker:

docker build --secret=id=SCCcredentials,src=/path/to/SCCcredentials \
    --secret=id=SUSEConnect,src=/path/to/SUSEConnect .

Podman:

buildah bud --layers --secret=id=SCCcredentials,src=/path/to/SCCcredentials \
    --secret=id=SUSEConnect,src=/path/to/SUSEConnect .
Note
Note

container-suseconnect runs automatically every time you invoke Zypper. If you are not using a registered SLES host, you may see the following error message:

> zypper ref
Refreshing service 'container-suseconnect-zypp'.
Problem retrieving the repository index file for service 'container-suseconnect-zypp':
[container-suseconnect-zypp|file:/usr/lib/zypp/plugins/services/container-suseconnect-zypp]
Warning: Skipping service 'container-suseconnect-zypp' because of the above error.

Ignore the message, as it simply indicates that container-suseconnect was not able to retrieve your SUSE Customer Center credentials, and thus could not add the full SLE repositories. You still have full access to the SLE_BCI repository, and can continue using the container as intended.

3.8.2 Adding modules to a container or container image

container-suseconnect allows you to automatically add SLE Modules to a container or container image. What modules are added is determined by the environment variable ADDITIONAL_MODULES that includes a comma-separated list of the module names. In a Dockerfile, this is done using the ENV directive as follows:

FROM registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:latest
ENV ADDITIONAL_MODULES sle-module-desktop-applications,sle-module-development-tools

RUN --mount=type=secret,id=SCCcredentials zypper -n in fluxbox && zypper -n clean

3.8.3 Common patterns

Here are a few examples that can give you an idea how to accomplish certain tasks in a SLE BCI compared to Debian.

Remove orphaned packages
  • Debian: apt-get autoremove -y

  • SLE BCI: Not required if you remove installed packages using the zypper --non-interactive remove --clean-deps PACKAGE_NAME

Obtain container’s architecture
  • Debian: dpkgArch="$(dpkg --print-architecture | awk -F- '{ print $NF }')"

  • SLE BCI: arch="$(uname -p|sed 's/x86_64/amd64/')"

Install packages required for compilation
  • Debian: apt-get install -y build-essential

  • SLE BCI: zypper -n in gcc gcc-c++ make

Verify GnuPG signatures
  • Debian: gpg --batch --verify SIGNATURE_URL FILE_TO_VERIFY

  • SLE BCI: zypper -n in dirmngr; gpg --batch --verify SIGNATURE_URL FILE_TO_VERIFY; zypper -n remove --clean-deps dirmngr; zypper -n clean

3.8.4 Package naming conventions

SLE package naming conventions differ from Debian, Ubuntu, and Alpine, and they are closer to those of RHEL. The main difference is that development packages of libraries (that is, packages containing headers and build description files) are named PACKAGE-devel in SLE, as opposed to PACKAGE-dev as they are in Debian and Ubuntu. When in doubt, search for the package directly using the following command: docker run --rm registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:OS_VERSION zypper search PACKAGE_NAME (replace OS_VERSION with the appropriate service version number, for example: 15.3 or 15.4).

3.8.5 Adding GPG signing keys

Adding external repositories to a container or container image normally requires importing the GPG key used for signing the packages. This can be done with the rpm --import KEY_URL command. This adds the key to the RPM database, and all packages from the repository can be installed afterwards.

3.9 Getting started with SLE Base Container Images

The SLE BCIs are available as OCI-compatible container images directly from registry.suse.com and can be used like any other container image. For example, using one of the general purpose containers:

> podman run --rm -it registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4 grep '^NAME' /etc/os-release
NAME="{sles}"

Alternatively, you can use a SLE BCI in Dockerfile as follows:

FROM registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4
RUN zypper -n in python3 && \
    echo "Hello Green World!" > index.html
ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/bin/python3", "-m", "http.server"]
EXPOSE 8000

You can then build container images using the docker build . or buildah bud . commands:

> docker build .
Sending build context to Docker daemon  2.048kB
Step 1/4 : FROM registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4
 ---> e34487b4c4e1
Step 2/4 : RUN zypper -n in python3 &&     echo "Hello Green World!" > index.html
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 9b527dfa45e8
Step 3/4 : ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/bin/python3", "-m", "http.server"]
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 953080e91e1e
Step 4/4 : EXPOSE 8000
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 48b33ec590a6
Successfully built 48b33ec590a6

> docker run -p 8000:8000 --rm -d 48b33ec590a6
575ad7edf43e11c2c9474055f7f6b7a221078739fc8ce5765b0e34a0c899b46a

> curl localhost:8000
Hello Green World!

4 Tools for building images and managing containers

This chapter provides a brief overview of tools for building images and managing containers. Most of the tools mentioned below are part of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP4 Containers Module. You can see the full list of packages in the Containers Module in the SUSE Customer Center.

4.1 Tools available to customers

4.1.1 Docker

Docker is a system for creating and managing containers. Its core is the Docker Open Source Engine—a lightweight virtualization solution to run containers simultaneously on a single host. Docker containers are be built using Dockerfiles.

4.1.2 Podman

Podman stands for Pod Manager tool. It is a daemonless container engine for developing, managing, and running Open Container Initiative (OCI) containers on a Linux system, and it offers a drop-in alternative for Docker. Podman is the default container runtime in openSUSE Kubic—a certified Kubernetes distribution built on top of openSUSE. For a general introduction to Podman, refer to Chapter 11, Podman overview.

4.1.3 Buildah

Buildah facilitates building OCI container images. It is a complementary tool to Podman, and ` podman build ` uses Buildah to perform container image builds. Buildah makes it possible to build images from scratch, from existing images, and using Dockerfiles. OCI images built using the Buildah command-line tool and the underlying OCI-based technologies (for example, containers/image and containers/storage ) are portable and can therefore run in a Docker Open Source Engine environment.

For information on installing and using Buildah, refer to Chapter 12, Buildah overview.

4.2 SUSE build tools

4.2.1 Open Build Service

The Open Build Service (OBS) provides free infrastructure for building and storing RPM packages including various container formats. The OBS Container Registry provides a detailed listing of all container images built by the OBS, complete with commands for pulling the images into your local Docker environment. The OBS openSUSE container image templates can be modified to specific needs, which offers the easiest way to create your own container branch. Container images can be built with native Docker tools from an existing image using a Dockerfile. Alternatively, images can be built from scratch using the KIWI image-building solution.

Instructions on how to build images on OBS can be found at https://openbuildservice.org/2018/05/09/container-building-and-distribution/.

4.2.2 KIWI

KIWI Next Generation is a multi-purpose tool for building images. In addition to container images, regular installation ISO images, and images for virtual machines, KIWI can build images that boot via PXE or Vagrant boxes. The main building block in KIWI is an image XML description, a directory that includes the config.xml or .kiwi file along with scripts or configuration data. The process of creating images with KIWI is fully automated and does not require any user interaction. Any information required for the image creation process is provided by the primary configuration file config.xml. The image can be customized using the config.sh and images.sh scripts.

Note
Note

It is important to distinguish between KIWI NG (currently version 9.20.9) and its unmaintained legacy versions (7.x.x or older), now called KIWI Legacy.

For specific information on how to install KIWI and use it to build images, see the KIWI documentation. A collection of example image descriptions can be found on the KIWI GitHub repository.

KIWI’s man pages provide information on using the tool. To access the man pages, install the kiwi-man-pages` package.

4.3 Building official SLE images

Images are considered official only if they are built using the Internal Build Service.

There are no official SLE container images at https://build.opensuse.org, and the RPMs exported there are not identical to the internal ones. This means that it is not possible to build officially supported images at https://build.opensuse.org.

5 Setting up Docker Open Source Engine

5.1 Preparing the host

Prepare the host as described below. Before installing any Docker-related packages, you need to enable the Containers Module:

Note
Note: Built-in Docker orchestration support

Starting with Docker Open Source Engine 1.12, container orchestration is now an integral part of Docker Open Source Engine. Even though this feature is available in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP4, it is not supported by SUSE and is only provided as a technology preview. Use K8S for container orchestration. For details, refer to the Kubernetes documentation.

5.1.1 Enabling the Containers Module using the YaST graphical interface

  1. Start YaST, and select Software > Software Repositories.

  2. Click Add to open the add-on dialog.

  3. Select Extensions and Modules from Registration Server and click Next.

  4. From the list of available extensions and modules, select Containers Module 15 SP4 x86_64 and click Next. This adds the Containers Module and its repositories to the system.

  5. If you use Repository Mirroring Tool, update the list of repositories on the RMT server.

5.1.2 Enabling the Containers Module from the command line using SUSEConnect

The Containers Module can also be added with the following command:

> sudo SUSEConnect -p sle-module-containers/15.4/x86_64

5.1.3 Installing and configuring Docker Open Source Engine

  1. Install the docker package:

    > sudo zypper install docker
  2. To automatically start the Docker service at boot time:

    > sudo systemctl enable docker.service

    This also enables docker.socket.

  3. Open the /etc/sysconfig/docker file. Search for the parameter DOCKER_OPTS and add --insecure-registry ADDRESS_OF_YOUR_REGISTRY.

    1. Add CA certificates to the directory /etc/docker/certs.d/REGISTRY_ADDRESS:

      > sudo cp CA /etc/pki/trust/anchors/
    2. Copy the CA certificates to your system:

      > sudo update-ca-certificates
  4. Start the Docker service:

    > sudo systemctl start docker.service

    This also starts docker.socket.

The Docker daemon listens on a local socket accessible only by the root user and by the members of the docker group. The docker group is automatically created during package installation.

To allow a certain user to connect to the local Docker daemon, use the following command:

> sudo /usr/sbin/usermod -aG docker USERNAME

This allows the user to communicate with the local Docker daemon.

5.2 Configuring the network

To give the containers access to the external network, enable the ipv4 ip_forward rule.

5.2.1 How Docker Open Source Engine interacts with iptables

To learn more about how containers interact with each other and the system firewall, see the Docker documentation.

It is also possible to prevent Docker Open Source Engine from manipulating iptables. See the Docker documentation.

5.3 Storage drivers

Docker Open Source Engine supports different storage drivers:

  • vfs: This driver is automatically used when the Docker host file system does not support copy-on-write. This driver is simpler than the others listed and does not leverage certain advantages of Docker Open Source Engine such as shared layers. It is a reliable but slow driver.

  • devicemapper: This driver relies on the device-mapper thin provisioning module. It supports copy-on-write, so it leverages all the advantages of Docker Open Source Engine.

  • btrfs: This driver relies on Btrfs to provide all the features required by Docker Open Source Engine. To use this driver, the /var/lib/docker directory must be on a Btrfs file system.

Since SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 onward, the Btrfs file system is used by default, which forces Docker Open Source Engine to use the btrfs driver.

It is possible to specify what driver to use by changing the value of the DOCKER_OPTS variable defined in the /etc/sysconfig/docker file. This can be done either manually or using YaST by browsing to the System > /etc/sysconfig Editor > System > Management > DOCKER_OPTS menu and entering the -s storage_driver string.

For example, to force the usage of the devicemapper driver, enter the following text:

DOCKER_OPTS="-s devicemapper"
Important
Important: Mounting /var/lib/docker

It is recommended to mount /var/lib/docker on a separate partition or volume. In case of file system corruption, this would leave the operating system running Docker Open Source Engine unaffected.

If you choose the Btrfs file system for /var/lib/docker, it is strongly recommended to create a subvolume for it. This ensures that the directory is excluded from file system snapshots. If you do not exclude /var/lib/docker from snapshots, the file system will likely run out of disk space soon after you start deploying containers. In addition, a rollback to a previous snapshot will also reset the Docker database and images. For more information, see https://documentation.suse.com/sles/html/SLES-all/cha-snapper.html#sec-snapper-setup-customizing-new-subvolume.

5.4 Updates

All updates to the docker package are marked as interactive (that is, no automatic updates) to avoid accidental updates that can break running container workloads. We recommend stopping all running containers before applying an update to Docker Open Source Engine.

To avoid data loss, we do not recommend having workloads rely on containers being start-able after an update to Docker Open Source Engine. Although it is technically possible to keep containers running during an update via the --live-restore option, experience has shown that such updates can introduce regressions. SUSE does not support this feature.

6 Configuring image storage

Before creating custom images, decide where you want to store images. The easiest solution is to push images to Docker Hub. By default, all images pushed to Docker Hub are public. Make sure not to publish sensitive data or software not licensed for public use.

You can restrict access to custom container images with the following:

  • Docker Hub allows creating private repositories for paid subscribers.

  • An on-site Docker Registry allows storing all the container images used by your organization.

6.1 What is Docker Registry?

Docker Registry is an open source platform for storing and retrieving container images. You can avoid using Docker Hub by running a local instance of Docker Registry.

Docker Registry is also used by Docker Hub. However, from a user’s point of view, Docker Hub consists of the following components:

The user interface (UI)

The part that is accessed by users using a browser. The UI provides an easy way to browse the contents of Docker Hub, either manually or using a search feature. It can be used to create organizations by different users. This component is closed source.

The authentication component

This component is used to protect the images stored in Docker Hub. It validates all push, pull, and search requests. The component is closed source.

The storage back-end

A place that images are uploaded to and downloaded from. It is provided by Docker Registry. This component is open source.

6.2 Running a Docker Registry

The SUSE Registry provides a container image that makes it possible to run a local Docker Registry as a container. Before you start a container, create a config.yml file with the following example configuration:

version: 0.1
log:
  level: info
storage:
  filesystem:
    rootdirectory: /var/lib/docker-registry
http:
  addr: 0.0.0.0:5000

Also create an empty directory to map the /var/lib/docker-registry directory outside the container. This directory is used for storing container images.

Run the following command to pull the registry container image from the SUSE Registry and start a container that can be accessed on port 5000:

podman run -d --restart=always --name registry -p 5000:5000 \
-v /PATH/config.yml:/etc/docker/registry/config.yml \
-v /PATH/DIR:/var/lib/ \ docker-registry registry.suse.com/sles12/registry:2.6.2

To make it easier to manage the registry, create a corresponding system unit:

> sudo podman generate systemd registry >  \
 /etc/systemd/system/suse_registry.service

Enable and start the registry service, then verify its status:

> sudo systemctl enable suse_registry.service
> sudo systemctl start suse_registry.service
> sudo systemctl status suse_registry.service

For more details about Docker Registry and its configuration, see the official documentation at https://docs.docker.com/registry/.

6.3 Limitations

Docker Registry has two major limitations:

  • It lacks any form of authentication. That means everybody with access to Docker Registry can push and pull images to it. That includes overwriting existing images.

  • It is not possible to see which images have been pushed to Docker Registry. You need to keep a record of what is being stored on it. There is also no search functionality.

7 Obtaining containers

This chapter provides information on obtaining container images.

7.1 SLE base images

SUSE offers several official base container images that can be used as a starting point for building custom containers. Each SLE base image provides a minimal environment with a shell and package management.

Base images are available from https://registry.suse.com. For information about the SUSE Registry, see Section 7.3, “SUSE Registry”. The base images in the SUSE Registry all have the status General Availability (that is, they are suitable for production use) and LTSS releases of SLES 12 and SLES 15. SLE base images in the SUSE Registry receive security updates and are covered by the SUSE support plans. For more information about these support plans, see Chapter 13, Compatibility and support conditions.

7.2 SUSE container properties

SUSE container images have identifiers that provide information about their version, origin, and creation time. The individual identifiers listed below can be accessed after you pull a container image from the repository and run podman inspect on it.

7.2.1 Repository names

Repository names start with the name of the product, for example: suse/sle…​ and opensuse/tumbleweed. The SLE 15 containers for all service packs reside in the repository suse/sle15. However, for SLE 12, there is a separate repository name for each service pack, for example, suse/sles12sp3, suse/sles12sp4, and suse/sles12sp5.

7.2.2 Labels

Labels help to identify images. All SLE container image labels begin with com.suse.PRODUCTCONTAINER_NAME followed by a further specification. Container images also contain org.opencontainers.image labels.

Below is a list of all currently defined labels.

org.opencontainers.image.title, com.suse.sle.base.title
  • Must be provided by derived images: Yes

  • OCI notation: org.opencontainers.image.title

  • Description: Title of the image

  • Example: SLE PRODUCT-GA Base Container

org.opencontainers.image.description, com.suse.sle.base.description
  • Must be provided by derived images: Yes

  • OCI notation: org.opencontainers.image.description

  • Description: Short description of the image

  • Example: Image containing a minimal environment for containers based on SLE PRODUCT-GA

org.opencontainers.image.version, com.suse.sle.base.version
  • Must be provided by derived images: Yes

  • OCI notation: org.opencontainers.image.version

  • Description: Image version (MAJOR.SP.CICOUNT.BUILDCOUNT)

  • Example: 15.0.4.2

org.opencontainers.image.created, com.suse.sle.base.created
  • Must be provided by derived images: Yes

  • OCI notation: org.opencontainers.image.created

  • Description: Timestamp of image build

  • Example: 2018-07-27T14:12:30Z

org.opencontainers.image.vendor, com.suse.sle.base.vendor
  • Must be provided by derived images: No

  • OCI notation: org.opencontainers.image.vendor

  • Description: Image vendor

  • Example: SUSE LLC

org.opencontainers.image.url, com.suse.sle.base.url
org.openbuildservice.disturl, com.suse.sle.base.disturl
  • Must be provided by derived images: Yes

  • OCI notation: org.openbuildservice.disturl

  • Description: Image OBS URL

  • Example: obs://build.suse.de/SUSE:SLE-15:Update:CR/images/2951b67133dd6384cacb28203174e030-sles15-image

org.opensuse.reference, com.suse.sle.base.reference
  • Must be provided by derived images: Yes

  • OCI notation: org.opensuse.reference

  • Description: Reference pointing to the image. The image you get with docker pullREF_NAME must not change.

  • Example: registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:4.2

7.2.3 SLE BCI labels

SLE BCIs feature the following labels.

com.suse.image-type

Shows whether this is a pure SLE BCI or an application container based on another SLE BCI.

com.suse.eula

Marks which section of the SUSE EULA applies to the container image.

com.suse.release-stage

Indicates the current release stage of the image.

  • prototype Indicates that the container image is in the ALP prototype phase.

  • alpha Prevents the container image from appearing in the registry.suse.com Web interface even if it is available there. The value also indicates the alpha quality of the container image.

  • beta Lists the container image in the Beta Container Images section of the registry.suse.com Web interface and adds the Beta label to the image. The value also indicates the beta quality of the container image.

  • released Indicates that the container image is released and suitable for production use.

com.suse.supportlevel

Shows the support level for the container.

  • l2 Problem isolation, which means technical support designed to analyze data, reproduce customer problems, isolate problem areas, and provide a resolution for problems not resolved by Level 1, or prepare for Level 3.

  • l3 Problem resolution, which means technical support designed to resolve problems by engaging engineering to resolve product defects which have been identified by Level 2 Support.

  • techpreview The image is unsupported and intended for use in proof-of-concept scenarios.

  • unsupported No support is provided for the image.

com.suse.lifecycle-url

Points to the https://www.suse.com/lifecycle/ page that offers information about the lifecycle of the image.

7.2.3.1 Working with SLE BCI labels

Use Podman and the jq tool to retrieve labels of a local image. The following command lists all labels of the bci-base:15.4 image:

podman inspect registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4 | \
jq '.[0].Labels'

It is also possible to retrieve the value of a specific label:

podman inspect registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4 | \
jq '.[0].Labels["com.suse.sle.base.supportlevel"]'

The preceding command retrieves the value of the com.suse.sle.base.supportlevel label.

The skopeo tool makes it possible to examine labels of an image without pulling it first. For example:

skopeo inspect docker://registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4 | \
jq '.Labels'
skopeo inspect docker://registry.suse.com/bci/bci-base:15.4 | \
jq '.Labels["com.suse.sle.base.supportlevel"]'

7.2.4 Tags

Tags are used to refer to images. A tag forms a part of the image’s name. Unlike labels, tags can be freely defined, and they are usually used to indicate a version number.

If a tag exists in multiple images, the newest image is used. The image maintainer decides which tags to assign to the container image.

The conventional tag format is repository name: image version specification (usually version number). For example, the tag for the latest published image of PRODUCTNAME 15 SP2 would be suse/sle15:15.2.

7.3 SUSE Registry

The official SUSE Registry is available at https://registry.suse.com. It contains tested and updated SLE base container images. All images in the SUSE Registry undergo a maintenance process. The images are built to contain the latest available updates and fixes. The SUSE Registry’s Web user interface lists a subset of the available images.

7.4 Verifying containers

Signatures for images available through SUSE Registry are stored in the Notary. You can verify the signature of a specific image using the following command:

docker trust inspect --pretty registry.suse.com/suse/IMAGE:TAG

For example, the command docker trust inspect --pretty registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:latest verifies the signature of the latest SLE15 base image.

To automatically validate an image when you pull it, set the environment DOCKER_CONTENT_TRUST to 1. For example:

env DOCKER_CONTENT_TRUST=1 docker pull registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:latest

7.5 Comparing containers

The container-diff tool can be used for analyzing and comparing container images. container-diff can examine images along with following several criteria:

  • Docker image history

  • Image file system

  • DEB packages

  • RPM packages

  • PyPI packages

  • NPM packages

You can inspect a single image or perform a diff operation on two images. container-diff supports Docker images located in both a local Docker daemon and a remote registry. It is also possible to use the tool with .tar, .tar.gz, and .tgz archives.

The container-diff package is part of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP4 Containers Module. Alternatively, it can be installed separately. For instructions on installing it, see the container-diff documentation.

8 Creating custom container images

To create a custom image, you need a base image of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. You can use any of the pre-built SUSE Linux Enterprise Server images.

8.1 Pulling base SLES images

To obtain a pre-built base image for SLE 12 SP5 and later, use the following command:

> docker pull registry.suse.com/suse/IMAGENAME

For example, for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15, the command is as follows:

> docker pull registry.suse.com/suse/sle15

sle2docker is not required, because the image is being pulled from the Docker Registry.

For information on obtaining specific base images, refer to Section 7.1, “SLE base images”.

When the container image is ready, you can customize it as described in Section 8.2, “Customizing SLES container images”.

8.2 Customizing SLES container images

The pre-built images do not have any repositories configured and do not include any modules or extensions. They contain a zypper service that contacts either the SUSE Customer Center or a Repository Mirroring Tool (RMT) server, according to the configuration of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server host that runs the container. The service obtains the list of repositories available for the product used by the container image. You can also directly declare extensions in your Dockerfile. For more information, see Section 8.2.3, “Adding SLE extensions and modules to images”.

Note
Note: SLE_BCI repository

Starting with SLE 15 SP3, the default base image includes the SLE_BCI repository. This repository is only used when a container is built or runs on a non-registered SLES host, or when registration credentials are not made available to containers. The repository provides a subset of SLE packages useful for customizing SLES container images. The repository is available without any registration, and it is not supported.

You do not need to add any credentials to the container image, because the machine credentials are automatically injected into the /run/secrets directory in the container by the docker daemon. The same applies to the /etc/SUSEConnect file of the host system, which is automatically injected into the /run/secrets directory.

Note
Note: Credentials and security

The contents of the /run/secrets directory are never included in a container image, hence there is no risk of your credentials leaking.

Note
Note: Building images on systems registered with RMT

When the host system used for building container images is registered with RMT, the default behavior allows only building containers of the same code base as the host. For example, if your container host is an SLE 15 system, you can only build SLE 15-based images on that host by default. To build images for a different SLE version, for example, SLE 12 on an SLE 15 host, the host machine credentials for the target release can be injected into the container as outlined below.

Note that if the RMT server is using a self-signed certificate, the matching CA certificate needs to be added into the container at CA_TRUSTSTORE/rmt-server.pem for the certificate to be accepted.

When the host system is registered with SUSE Customer Center, this restriction does not apply.

Note
Note: Building container images in on-demand SLE instances in the public cloud

Building container images on SLE instances that were launched as on-demand or pay-as-you-go instances on a public cloud (AWS, GCE, or Azure) requires additional steps. To install packages and updates, the on-demand public cloud instances are connected to the update infrastructure. This infrastructure is based on RMT servers operated by SUSE on public cloud providers.

Therefore, your machines need to locate the required services and authenticate with them. This can be done using the containerbuild-regionsrv service. This service is available in the public cloud images provided through the marketplaces of public cloud providers. Before building an image, this service must be started on the public cloud instance by running the following command:

> sudo systemctl start containerbuild-regionsrv

To start it automatically on system start-up, enable it:

> sudo systemctl enable containerbuild-regionsrv

The Zypper plug-ins provided by the SLE base images connect to this service and retrieve authentication details and information about which update server to talk to. For this to work, the container has to be built with host networking enabled, for example:

> docker build --network host build-directory/

Since update infrastructure in the public clouds is based upon RMT, the restrictions on building SLE images for SLE versions different from the SLE version of the host apply as well (see Note: Building images on systems registered with RMT).

To obtain the list of repositories, use the following command:

>sudo zypper ref -s

This automatically adds all the repositories to the container. For each repository added to the system, a new file is created under /etc/zypp/repos.d . The URLs of these repositories include an access token that automatically expires after 12 hours. To renew the token, run the command zypper ref -s . Including these files in a container image does not pose any security risk.

To use a different set of credentials, put a custom /etc/zypp/credentials.d/SCCcredentials file inside the container image. It contains the machine credentials that have the subscription you want to use. The same applies to the SUSEConnect file: to override the existing file on the host system running the container, add a custom /etc/SUSEConnect file inside the container image.

Now you can create a custom container image by using a Dockerfile as described in Section 8.2.1, “Creating a custom image for SLE 12 SP5 and later”.

If you want to move your application to a container, see Chapter 10, Creating application images.

After you have edited the Dockerfile, build the image by running the following command in the same directory in which the Dockerfile resides:

> docker build .

For more information about docker build options, see the official Docker documentation .

Note
Note: Creating application images

For information about creating a Dockerfile for the application you want to run inside a container, see Chapter 10, Creating application images.

8.2.1 Creating a custom image for SLE 12 SP5 and later

The following Dockerfile creates a simple container image based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15:

FROM registry.suse.com/suse/sle15
RUN zypper ref -s
RUN zypper -n in vim

When the Docker host machine is registered with an internal RMT server, the image requires the SSL certificate used by RMT:

FROM registry.suse.com/suse/sle15
# Import the crt file of our private SMT server
ADD http://smt./smt.crt /etc/pki/trust/anchors/smt.crt
RUN update-ca-certificates
RUN zypper ref -s
RUN zypper -n in vim

8.2.2 Meta information in SLE container images

Starting with SLE 12 SP3, all base container images include information such as a build time stamp and description. This information is provided in the form of labels attached to the base images, and is therefore available for derived images and containers (see Section 7.2.2, “Labels”). This information can be viewed with docker inspect :

>docker inspect registry.suse.com/suse/sle15
        [...]
        "Labels": {
            "com.suse.sle.base.created": "2020-11-23T11:51:32.695975200Z",
            "com.suse.sle.base.description": "Image containing a minimal environment for containers based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP2.",
            "com.suse.sle.base.disturl": "obs://build.suse.de/SUSE:{slea}-15-SP2:Update:CR/images/4a8871be8078bcef2e2417e2a98fc3a0-sles15-image",
            "com.suse.sle.base.reference": "registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:15.2.8.2.794",
            "com.suse.sle.base.title": "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP2 Base Container",
            "com.suse.sle.base.url": "https://www.suse.com/products/server/",
            "com.suse.sle.base.vendor": "SUSE LLC",
            "com.suse.sle.base.version": "15.2.8.2.794",
            "org.openbuildservice.disturl": "obs://build.suse.de/SUSE:{slea}-15-SP2:Update:CR/images/4a8871be8078bcef2e2417e2a98fc3a0-sles15-image",
            "org.opencontainers.image.created": "2020-11-23T11:51:32.695975200Z",
            "org.opencontainers.image.description": "Image containing a minimal environment for containers based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP2.",
            "org.opencontainers.image.title": "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP2 Base Container",
            "org.opencontainers.image.url": "https://www.suse.com/products/server/",
            "org.opencontainers.image.vendor": "SUSE LLC",
            "org.opencontainers.image.version": "15.2.8.2.794",
            "org.opensuse.reference": "registry.suse.com/suse/sle15:15.2.8.2.794"
        },
        [...]

All labels are shown twice to ensure that the information in derived images about the original base image is still visible and not overwritten.

8.2.3 Adding SLE extensions and modules to images

If you have subscriptions to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server extensions or modules that you want to use in your custom image, you can add them to the container image by specifying the ADDITIONAL_MODULES environment variable:

ENV ADDITIONAL_MODULES sle-module-desktop-applications,sle-module-development-tools

9 Container orchestration

9.1 Pod deployment with Podman

In addition to building and managing images, Podman makes it possible to work with pods. A pod is a group of one or more containers with shared resources, such as the network interface. A pod encapsulates an application composed of multiple containers into a single unit.

The podman pod can be used to create, delete, query, and inspect pods. To create a new pod, run the podman pod create command. This creates a pod with a random name. To list the existing pods, use the podman pod list command. To view a list of running pods, run podman ps -a --pod. The output of the command looks as follows (the STATUS and CREATED columns are omitted for brevity):

POD ID        NAME                # OF CONTAINERS   INFRA ID
399a120a09ff  suspicious_curie    1                 e57820093817

Notice that the command assigned a random name to the pod (suspicious_curie in this case). You can use the --name parameter to assign the desired name to a pod.

To examine the pod and its contents, run the podman ps -a --pod command and take a look at the output (the COMMAND, CREATED, STATUS, PORTS, and POD ID columns are omitted for brevity):

CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                 NAMES              PODNAME
e57820093817  k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.2  399a120a09ff-infra suspicious_curie

The created pod has an infra container identified by the k8s.gcr.io name. The purpose of this container is to reserve the namespaces associated with the pod and allow Podman to add other containers to the pod.

Using the podman run --pod command, you can run a container and add it to the desired pod. For example, the command below runs a container based on the suse/sle15 image and adds the container to the suspicious_curie pod:

podman run -d --pod suspicious_curie registry.suse.com/suse/sle15 sleep 1h

The command above adds a container that sleeps for 60 minutes and then exits. Run the podman ps -a --pod command again and you should see that the pod now has two containers.

Containers in a pod can be restarted, stopped, and started without affecting the overall status of the pod. For example, you can stop a container using the sudo podman stop CONTAINER_NAME command.

To stop the pod, use the podman pod stop command:

podman pod stop suspicious_curie

10 Creating application images

Docker Open Source Engine is designed to allow running multiple separate application environments in parallel, with lower resource use than when using full virtual machines. Applications that are suitable for running inside containers include daemons, Web servers, and applications that expose IP ports for communications. You can use Docker Open Source Engine to automate the building and deployment processes by performing the build process inside a container, building an image, and then deploying containers based on the image.

Running an application inside a container has the following advantages:

  • The image with the application is portable across servers running different Linux host distributions and versions.

  • You can share the image of the application using a repository.

  • You can use different versions of software in the container and on the host system, without creating dependency issues.

  • You can run multiple instances of the same application that are independent from each other.

Using Docker Open Source Engine to build applications has the following advantages:

  • You can prepare an image of the complete build environment.

  • The application can run in the same environment it was built in.

  • Developers can test their code in the same environment as used in production.

The following section provides examples and recommendations on creating container images for applications. Before proceeding, make sure that you have activated your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server base image as described in Section 8.1, “Pulling base SLES images”.

10.1 Running an application with specific package versions

If your application needs a version of a package different from the package installed on the system, you can create a container image that includes the package version the application requires. The following example Dockerfile allows building an image based on an up-to-date version of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server with an older version of the example package:

FROM registry.suse.com/suse/sle15
LABEL maintainer=EXAMPLEUSER_PLAIN
RUN zypper ref && zypper in -f example-1.0.0-0
COPY application.rpm /tmp/
RUN zypper --non-interactive in /tmp/application.rpm
ENTRYPOINT ["/etc/bin/application"]
CMD ["-i"]

Build the image by running the following command in the directory that the Dockerfile resides in:

> docker build --tag tux_application:latest .

The Dockerfile example shown above performs the following operations during the docker build:

  1. Updates the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server repositories.

  2. Installs the desired version of the example package.

  3. Copies the application package to the image. The binary RPM must be placed in the build context.

  4. Unpacks the application.

  5. The last two steps run the application after a container is started.

After a successful build of the tux_application image, you can start a container based on the new image using the following command:

> docker run -it --name application_instance tux_application:latest

Keep in mind that after closing the application, the container exits as well.

10.2 Running an application with a specific configuration

To run an instance using a different configuration, create a derived image and include the additional configuration with it. In the example below, an application called example is configured using the file /etc/example/configuration_example:

FROM registry.suse.com/suse/sle15 1
RUN zypper ref && zypper --non-interactive in example 2
ENV BACKUP=/backup 3
RUN mkdir -p $BACKUP 4
COPY configuration_example /etc/example/ 5
ENTRYPOINT ["/etc/bin/example"] 6

The above example Dockerfile performs the following operations:

1

Pulls the sle15 base image as described in Section 8.1, “Pulling base SLES images”.

2

Refreshes repositories and installations of the example.

3

Sets a BACKUP environment variable (the variable persists to containers started from the image). You can always overwrite the value of the variable while running the container by specifying a new value.

4

Creates the directory /backup.

5

Copies the configuration_example to the image.

6

Runs the example application.

10.3 Sharing data between an application and the host system

Docker Open Source Engine allows sharing data between host and a container by using volumes. You can specify a mount point directly in the Dockerfile. However, you cannot specify a directory on the host system in the Dockerfile, as the directory may not be accessible at build time. Find the mounted directory under /var/lib/docker/volumes/ on the host system.

Note
Note: Discarding changes to the directory to be shared

After you specify a mount point by using the VOLUME instruction, all changes made to the directory with the RUN instruction are discarded. After the mount point is specified, the volume becomes a part of a temporary container, which is removed after a successful build. This means that for certain actions to take effect, they must be performed before specifying a mount point. For example, if you need to change permissions, do this before you specify the directory as a mount point in the Dockerfile.

Specify a particular mount point on the host system when running a container by using the -v option:

> docker run -it --name testing -v /home/tux/data:/data sles12sp4:latest /bin/bash
Note
Note

The -v option overwrites the VOLUME instruction if you specify the same mount point in the container.

The following Dockerfile example builds an image containing a Web server that reads Web content from the host’s file system:

FROM registry.suse.com/suse/sles12sp4
RUN zypper ref && zypper --non-interactive in apache2
COPY apache2 /etc/sysconfig/
RUN chown -R admin /data
EXPOSE 80
VOLUME /data
ENTRYPOINT ["apache2ctl"]

The example above installs the Apache Web server to the image and copies the entire configuration to the image. The data directory is owned by the admin user and is used as a mount point to store Web pages.

10.4 Applications running in the background

If your application needs to run in the background as a daemon, or as an application exposing ports for communication, you can run the container in the background.

An example Dockerfile for an application exposing a port is as follows:

FROM registry.suse.com/suse/sle15 1
LABEL maintainer=EXAMPLEUSER_PLAIN 2
ADD etc/ /etc/zypp/ 3
RUN zypper refs && zypper refresh 4
RUN zypper --non-interactive in apache2 5
RUN echo "The Web server is running" > /srv/www/htdocs/test.html 6
# COPY data/* /srv/www/htdocs/ 7
EXPOSE 80 8
ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/sbin/httpd"]
CMD ["-D", "FOREGROUND"]

1

Pull the base image as described in Section 8.1, “Pulling base SLES images”.

2

Maintainer of the image (optional).

3

The repositories and service files to be copied to /etc/zypp/repos.d and /etc/zypp/services.d. This makes them available on the host in the container.

4

Command to refresh repositories and services.

5

Command to install Apache2.

6

Test line for debugging purposes. This line can be removed if everything works as expected.

7

A COPY instruction to copy data from the host system to the directory in the container used by the server. The leading hash character ( # ) marks this line as a comment; it is not executed.

8

The exposed port for the Apache Web server.

Note
Note

To use port 80, make sure there is no other server software running on this port on the host.

To use the container, proceed as follows:

  1. Prepare the host system for the build process.

    1. Make sure the host system is subscribed to the Server Applications Module of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. To view installed modules or install additional modules, open YaST and select Add System Extensions or Modules.

    2. Make sure the SLE images from the SUSE Registry are installed as described in Section 8.1, “Pulling base SLES images”.

    3. Save the Dockerfile in the docker directory.

    4. Within the container, you need access to software repositories and services that are registered on the host. To make them available, copy repositories and service files from the host to the docker/etc directory:

      > cd docker
      > mkdir etc
      > sudo cp -a /etc/zypp/{repos.d,services.d} etc/

      Instead of copying all repository and service files, you can also copy only the subset that is required by the container.

    5. Add Web site data (such as HTML files) into the docker/data directory. The contents of this directory are copied to the container image and are thus published by the Web server.

  2. Build the container. Set a tag for your image with the -t option (in the command below, it is EXAMPLEUSER_PLAIN/apache2):

    > docker build -t EXAMPLEUSER_PLAIN/apache2 .

    Docker Open Source Engine executes the instructions provided in the Dockerfile: pull the base image, copy content, refresh repositories, install the Apache2, etc.

  3. Start a container instance from the image created in the previous step:

    > docker run --detach --interactive --tty EXAMPLEUSER_PLAIN/apache2

    Docker Open Source Engine returns the container ID, for example:

    7bd674eb196d330d50f8a3cfc2bc61a243a4a535390767250b11a7886134ab93
  4. Point a browser to http://localhost:80/test.html . You should see the message The Web server is running.

  5. To see an overview of running containers, run the docker ps --latest command:

    > docker ps --latest
    CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  [...]
    7bd674eb196d
    tux/apache2         "/usr/sbin/httpd -..."   [...]

    To stop and delete the container, run the following command:

    > docker rm --force 7bd674eb196d

You can use the resulting container to serve your data with the Apache2 Web server by following these steps:

  1. In the Dockerfile :

    • In the example Dockerfile, comment the line that starts with RUN echo by adding a # character at its beginning.

    • In the example Dockerfile, uncomment the line starting with COPY by removing the leading # character.

  2. Rebuild the image.

  3. Run the image in detached mode:

    > docker run --detach --interactive --tty EXAMPLEUSER_PLAIN/apache2

    Docker Open Source Engine responds with the container ID, for example:

    e43fff4ae9832ecdb7677c058a73039d7610c32145a1d9b6ad0a4ed52b5c4dc7

To view the published data, point a browser at http://localhost:80/test.html .

To avoid copying Web site data into the container, share a directory of the host with the container. For more information, see https://docs.docker.com/storage/volumes/ .

11 Podman overview

Podman is short for Pod Manager Tool. It is a daemonless container engine for developing, managing, and running Open Container Initiative (OCI) containers on a Linux system, and it offers a drop-in alternative for Docker. Podman is the default container runtime in openSUSE Kubic—a certified Kubernetes distribution built on top of openSUSE. Podman can be used to create OCI-compliant container images using a Dockerfile and a range of commands identical to Docker Open Source Engine. For example, the podman build command performs the same task as docker build. In other words, Podman provides a drop-in replacement for Docker Open Source Engine.

Moving from Docker Open Source Engine to Podman does not require any changes in the established workflow. There is no need to rebuild images, and you can use the exact same commands to build and manage images as well as run and control containers.

Podman differs from Docker Open Source Engine in two important ways.

  • Podman does not use a daemon, so the container engine interacts directly with an image registry, containers, and an image storage. As Podman does not have a daemon, it provides integration with systemd. This makes it possible to control containers via systemd units. You can create these units for existing containers as well as generate units that can start containers if they do not exist in the system. Moreover, Podman can run systemd inside containers.

  • Because Podman relies on namespaces, which provide an isolation mechanism for Linux processes, it does not require root privileges to create and run containers. This means that Podman can run in root mode as well as in an unprivileged environment. Moreover, a container created by an unprivileged user cannot get higher privileges on the host than the container’s creator.

11.1 Podman installation

To install Podman, run the command sudo zypper in podman. Then run podman --version to check whether Podman has been installed successfully.

To run Podman without root privileges, subuids and subgids must be assigned to the user running Podman. If there is no entry in the /etc/subuid file, add an entry using the following command:

> sudo usermod --add-subuids 100000-165535 --add-subgids 100000-165535 USER

To enable the change, reboot the machine or stop the session of the current user. To do the latter, run loginctl list-sessions | grep USER and note the session ID. Then run loginctl kill-session SESSION_ID to stop the session.

The command above defines a range of local UIDs to which the UIDs allocated to users inside the container are mapped on the host. Note that the ranges defined for different users must not overlap. It is also important that the ranges do not reuse the UID of an existing local user or group. By default, adding a user with the useradd command on SLES 15 SP4 automatically allocates subUID and subGID ranges.

When using rootless containers with Podman, it is recommended to use cgroups v2. cgroups v1 are limited compared to v2. For example cgroups v1 allow every user to modify all existing control groups, and not just their own. Additionally, Podman is unable to read container logs properly with cgroups v1 and the systemd log driver. To enable cgroups v2, add the following to the kernel cmdline: systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1

Running a container with Podman in rootless mode on SLS may fail, because the container needs read access to the SCC credentials. For example, running a container with the command podman run -it --rm registry.suse.com/suse/sle15 bash and then executing zypper ref results in the following error message:

Refreshing service 'container-suseconnect-zypp'.
Problem retrieving the repository index file for service 'container-suseconnect-zypp':
[container-suseconnect-zypp|file:/usr/lib/zypp/plugins/services/container-suseconnect-zypp]
Warning: Skipping service 'container-suseconnect-zypp' because of the above error.
Warning: There are no enabled repositories defined.
Use 'zypper addrepo' or 'zypper modifyrepo' commands to add or enable repositories

To solve the problem, grant the current user the required access rights by running the following command on the host:

> sudo setfacl -m u:USER:r /etc/zypp/credentials.d/*

Log out and log in again to apply the changes.

To give multiple users the required access, create a dedicated group using the groupadd GROUPNAME command. Then use the following command to change the group ownership and rights of files in the /etc/zypp/credentials.d/ directory.

> sudo chgrp GROUPNAME /etc/zypp/credentials.d/*
> sudo chmod g+r /etc/zypp/credentials.d/*

You can then grant a specific user write access by adding them to the created group.

11.2 Podman basic usage

Since Podman is compatible with Docker Open Source Engine, it features the same commands and options. For example, the podman pull command fetches a container image from a registry, while the podman build command is used to build images.

One of the advantages of Podman over Docker Open Source Engine is that Podman can be configured to search multiple registries. To make Podman search the SUSE Registry first and use Docker Hub as a fallback, add the following configuration to the /etc/containers/registries.conf file:

[registries.search]
registries = ["registry.suse.com", "docker.io"]

Similar to Docker Open Source Engine, Podman can run containers in an interactive mode, allowing you to inspect and work with an image. To run suse/sle15 in interactive mode, use the following command:

> podman run --rm -ti suse/sle15

11.2.1 Building images with Podman

Podman can build images from a Dockerfile. The podman build command behaves as docker build, and it accepts the same options.

Podman’s companion tool Buildah provides an alternative way to build images. For further information about Buildah, refer to Chapter 12, Buildah overview.

12 Buildah overview

Buildah is tool for building OCI-compliant container images. Buildah can handle the following tasks:

  • Create containers from scratch or from existing images.

  • Create an image from a working container or via a Dockerfile.

  • Build images in the OCI or Docker Open Source Engine image formats.

  • Mount a working container’s root file system for manipulation.

  • Use the updated contents of a container’s root file system as a file system layer to create a new image.

  • Delete a working container or an image and rename a local container.

Compared to Docker Open Source Engine, Buildah offers the following advantages:

  • The tool makes it possible to mount a working container’s file system, so it becomes accessible by the host.

  • The process of building container images using Buildah can be automated via scripts by using Buildah’s subcommands instead of a Containerfile or Dockerfile.

  • Similar to Podman, Buildah does not require a daemon to run and can be used by unprivileged users.

  • It is possible to build images inside a container without mounting the Docker socket, which improves security.

12.1 Podman and Buildah

Both Podman and Buildah can be used to build container images. While Podman makes it possible to build images using Dockerfiles, Buildah offers an expanded range of image building options and capabilities.

12.2 Buildah installation

To install Buildah, run the command sudo zypper in buildah. Run the command buildah --version to check whether Buildah has been installed successfully.

If you already have Podman installed and set up for use in rootless mode, Buildah can be used in an unprivileged environment without any further configuration. If you need to enable rootless mode for Buildah, run the following command:

> sudo usermod --add-subuids 100000-165535 --add-subgids 100000-165535 USER

This command enables rootless mode for the current user. After running the command, log out and log in again to enable the changes.

The command above defines a range of local UIDs on the host, onto which the UIDs allocated to users inside the container are mapped. Note that the ranges defined for different users must not overlap. It is also important that the ranges do not reuse the UID of any existing local users or groups. By default, adding a user with the useradd command on SLES 15 SP4 automatically allocates subUID and subGID ranges.

Note
Note

Buildah in rootless mode

In rootless mode, Buildah commands must be executed in a modified user namespace of the user. To enter this user namespace, run the command buildah unshare. Otherwise, the buildah mount command will fail.

12.3 Building images with Buildah

Instead of a special file with instructions, Buildah uses individual commands to build an image. Building an image with Buildah involves the following steps:

  • run a container based on the specified image

  • edit the container (install packages, configure settings, etc.)

  • configure the container options

  • commit all changes into a new image

While this process may include additional steps, such as mounting the container’s file system and working with it, the basic workflow logic remains the same.

The following example can give you a general idea of how to build an image with Buildah.

container=$(buildah from suse/sle15) 1
buildah run $container zypper up 2
buildah copy $container . /usr/src/example/ 3
buildah config --workingdir /usr/src/example $container 4
buildah config --port 8000 $container
buildah config --cmd "php -S 0.0.0.0:8000" $container
buildah config --label maintainer="Tux" $container 5
buildah config --label version="0.1" $container
buildah commit $container example 6
buildah rm $container 7

1

Specify a container (also called a working container) based on the specified image (in this case, sle15).

2

Run a command in the working container you just created. In this example, Buildah runs the zypper up command.

3

Copy files and directories to the specified location in the container. In this example, Buildah copies the entire contents of the current directory to /usr/src/example/.

4

The buildah config commands specify container options. These include defining a working directory, exposing a port, and running a command inside the container.

5

The buildah config --label command allows you to assign labels to the container. This may include maintainer, description, version, and so on.

6

Create an image from the working container by committing all the modifications.

7

Delete the working container.

13 Compatibility and support conditions

13.1 Support information

The term "support" refers to two distinct concepts: a) technical enablement of a feature or combination of, for example, host and container, and b) enterprise support as delivered by SUSE to SUSE customers. Enterprise support requires a subscription for SUSE products according to https://www.suse.com/products/terms_and_conditions.pdf. Technical enablement is described below.

13.1.1 Support for SLES hosts

Consult the following support and compatibility matrix to make sure that the desired host system and container combination is compatible and supported.

Table 13.1: Support matrix
Host ↓ Container image →SLES 12SLES 15

SLES 12 SP5

SLES 15

SLE Micro

✓ Fully supported

❋ Limited support (see the Limited support note)

Important
Important: Limited support note

SUSE provides limited support for SLES PRODUCT-GA-based containers running on SLES 12 SP5 hosts due to the fact that containerized applications can make system calls not available in the host’s kernel. To avoid potential risks and compatibility problems, SUSE recommends using the same Service Pack release for both containers and hosts.

BCIs support the following architectures: X86-64, AARCH64, POWER, and ZSERIES. Container architecture must match the architecture of the host. Mismatching container and host scenarios are not supported.

In most scenarios, all SLE containers are expected to be interoperable if the application or its dependencies do not interact directly with kernel version-specific data structures (ioctl, /proc, /sys, routing, iptables, nftables, eBPF, etc.) or modules (KVM, OVS, SystemTap, etc.). Support for ioctl and access to /proc is limited to the most common scenarios needed by unprivileged users.

13.1.2 Support for non-SLES hosts

While SUSE-based containers are fully supported, issues in the host environment must be handled by the host environment vendor. SUSE supports components that are part of the SUSE base containers. Packages from SUSE repositories are also supported. Additional components and applications in the containers are not covered by SUSE support. A SLE subscription is required for building derived containers.

Containers based on SLES 12 SP5 and SLES 15 (all service packs) are supported according to their official lifecycles and the following table.

The following third-party container host platforms are supported.

Table 13.2: Support for non-SLES hosts
Container host platformContainer runtimeSupport status

Red Hat OpenShift

cri-o

Microsoft Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)

containerd

Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

containerd

Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (EKS)

containerd

✓ Fully compatible and fully supported

❋ Workload specific: fully supported but compatibility depends on type of container (privileged or unprivileged) and on the application interactions (direct with kernel-version-specific data structures, kernel-version-specific modules, etc.)

13.2 Support plans

There are three guiding principles of SUSE container support.

  1. The container image lifecycle follows the lifecycle of the related products.

    For example, SLES 15 SP4 container images follow the SLES 15 SP4 lifecycle.

  2. Container release status also matches the status of the related product.

    For example, if SLES 15 SP4 is in Alpha, Beta, RC, or GA stage, the related containers have the same release status.

  3. Containers are built using the packages from the related products.

    For example, SLES 15 SP4 container images are built using the same packages as the main SLES 15 SP4 release.

For further information, refer to the Product Support Lifecycle page and the documentation available for specific container images on SUSE Registry.

Container images can have different support status, and they can have limited support. Refer to the appropriate SUSE Registry page for the further information about a specific container image.

13.3 Containers and host environments support overview

The following support options are valid for SLES containers on SUSE host environments.

Containers and host environments delivered by SUSE are fully supported. This also applies to all products under support, including both general support and Long Term Service Pack Support (LTSS).

Partner containers and host environments with a joint engineering collaboration agreement are fully supported. This applies to both the container and host environment as well as all products under support (both general and LTSS) covered by the agreement.

While SUSE-based containers are fully supported, issues in the host environment must be handled by the host environment vendor. SUSE supports components that come from the SUSE base containers. Packages from SUSE repositories are also supported. Additional components and applications in the containers are not covered by SUSE support. No subscription is required for building derived containers based on the content of the SLE BCIs or the SLE BCI Repository. To build containers that include packages from the full SLE universe, you need a subscription that grants you access to the repositories containing these packages.

Any container and host environment not mentioned above has limited support. Details can be discussed with the SUSE Support Team responsible for triaging the issue and recommending alternative solutions. In any other case, issues in the host environment must be handled by the host environment vendor.

13.4 Technology previews

Container images labeled as Tech Preview are provided by SUSE to give you an opportunity to test new technologies within your environment and share your feedback. If you test a technology preview, contact your SUSE representative to share your experiences and use cases. Your input is helpful for future development.

Technology previews come with the following limitations:

  • Technology previews can be functionally incomplete, unstable, and not suitable for production use.

  • Technology previews are not supported.

  • Technology previews can be available only for specific hardware architectures.

  • Specifics and functionality of technology previews are subject to change. As a result, upgrading to subsequent releases of a technology preview may not be possible and may require a fresh installation.

  • Technology previews can be canceled at any time. For example, if SUSE discovers that a preview does not meet the customer or market needs, or it does not comply with enterprise standards. SUSE does not commit to providing a supported version of such technologies in the future.

Container images are labeled as Tech Preview and are marked as such at registry.suse.com. Additionally, container images that are technology previews include the com.suse.supportlevel="techpreview" label in the container image metadata. You can check whether the metadata includes the label using the docker inspect command, or an appropriate command in other container runtimes.

14 Troubleshooting

14.1 Analyze container images with container-diff

In case a custom Docker Open Source Engine container image built on top of the SLE base container image is not working as expected, the container-diff tool can help you analyze the image and collect information relevant for troubleshooting.

container-diff makes it possible to analyze image changes by computing differences between images and presenting the diff in a human-readable and actionable format. The tool can find differences in system packages, language-level packages, and files in a container image.

container-diff can handle local container images (using the prefix daemon://), images in a remote registry (using the prefix remote://), and images saved as .tar archives. You can use container-diff to compute the diff between a local version of an image and a remote version.

To install container-diff, run the sudo zypper in container-diff command.

14.1.1 Basic container-diff commands

The command container-diff analyze IMAGE runs a standard analysis on a single image. By default, it returns a hash and size of the container image. For more information that can help you to identify and fix problems, use the specific analyzers. Use the --type parameter to specify the desired analyzer. Two of the most useful analyzers are history (returns a list of descriptions of how an image layer was created) and file (returns a list of file system contents, including names, paths, and sizes):

> sudo container-diff analyze --type=history daemon://IMAGE
> sudo container-diff analyze --type=file daemon://IMAGE

To view all available parameters and their brief descriptions, run the container-diff analyze --help command.

Using the container-diff diff command, you can compare two container images and examine differences between them. Similar to the container-diff analyze command, container-diff diff supports several parameters. The example command below compares two images and returns a list of descriptions of how IMAGE_2 was created from IMAGE_1.

> sudo container-diff diff daemon://IMAGE_1 daemon://IMAGE_2 --type=history

To view all available parameters and their brief descriptions, run the container-diff diff --help command.

15 Terminology

Container

A container is a running instance based on a particular container image. Each container can be distinguished by a unique container ID.

Control groups

Control groups, also called cgroups , are a Linux kernel feature that allows aggregating or partitioning tasks (processes) and all their children into hierarchically-organized groups, to manage their resource limits.

Docker Open Source Engine

Docker Open Source Engine is a server-client type application that performs all tasks related to containers. Docker Open Source Engine comprises the following: +

  • Daemon:. + The server side of Docker Open Source Engine, which manages all Docker objects (images, containers, network connections used by containers, etc.).

  • REST API:. + Applications can use this API to communicate directly with the daemon.

  • CLI client:. + Enables you to communicate with the daemon. If the daemon is running on a different machine than the CLI client, the CLI client can communicate by using network sockets or the REST API provided by Docker Open Source Engine.

Dockerfile

A Dockerfile provides instructions on how to build a container image. Docker Open Source Engine reads instructions in the Dockerfile and builds a new image according to the instructions.

Image

An image is a read-only template used to create a container. A Docker image is made of a series of layers built one over the other. Each layer corresponds to a permanent change, for example, an update of an application. The changes are stored in a file called a Dockerfile. For more details, see the official Docker documentation.

Container image

A container image is an unchangeable, static file that includes executable code so it can run an isolated process on IT infrastructure. The image is comprised of system libraries, system tools, and other platform settings a program needs to run on a containerization platform. A container image is compiled from file system layers built on top of a parent or base image.

Base image

A base image is an image that does not have a parent image. In a Dockerfile, a base image is identified by the FROM scratch directive.

Parent image

The image that serves as the basis for another container image. In other words, if an image is not a base image, it is derived from a parent image. In a Dockerfile, the FROM directive is pointing to the parent image. Most Docker containers are created using parent images.

Namespaces

Docker Open Source Engine uses Linux namespaces for its containers, which isolates resources reserved for particular containers.

Orchestration

In a production environment, you typically need a cluster with many containers on each cluster node. The containers must cooperate and you need a framework that enables you to automatically manage the containers. The act of automatic container management is called container orchestration and is typically handled by Kubernetes.

Registry

A registry is storage for already-created images. It typically contains several repositories. There are two types of registries: +

  • public registry: Any (usually registered) user can download and use images. A typical example of a public registry is Docker Hub.

  • private registry: Access is restricted to particular users, or from a particular private network.

Repository

A repository is storage for images in a registry. == Improving the documentation

Feedback and contributions to this documentation can be submitted using any of the following options.

Service requests and support

For services and support options available for your product, see https://www.suse.com/support/. To open a service request, you need a SUSE subscription registered at SUSE Customer Center. Go to https://scc.suse.com/support/requests, log in, and click Create New.

Bug reports

Report issues with the documentation at https://bugzilla.suse.com/ (this requires a Bugzilla account). To simplify the process, use the Report an issue link in the HTML version of this document. Point the cursor to the desired sentence, and click Report an issue in the Give feedback section of the right-side navigation panel. This automatically selects the correct product and category in Bugzilla and adds a link to the current section. You can now write your bug report.

Contributions

To contribute to this documentation, use the Edit source document link in the HTML version of this document (this requires a GitHub account). Point the cursor to the desired sentence, and click Report an issue in the Give feedback section of the right-side navigation panel. This takes you to the source code on GitHub, where you can open a pull request.

Note
Note: Edit source document only available for English

The Edit source document links are only available for the English version of each document. For all other languages, use the Report an issue link as described above.

For more information about the documentation environment used for this documentation, refer to the repository’s README file at https://github.com/SUSE/doc-unversioned/blob/main/README.adoc

Mail

You can also report errors and send feedback concerning the documentation to doc-team@suse.com. Include the document title, the product version, and the publication date of the document. Additionally, include the relevant section number and title (or provide the URL), and provide a concise description of the problem.

17 GNU free documentation license

Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or non-commercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named sub-unit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or non-commercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.

  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—​for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU
Free Documentation License”.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…​Texts.” line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.