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SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP3

Administration Guide


This guide covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.

Publication Date: May 03, 2022
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I Common tasks
1 Bash and Bash scripts
1.1 What is the shell?
1.2 Writing shell scripts
1.3 Redirecting command events
1.4 Using aliases
1.5 Using variables in Bash
1.6 Grouping and combining commands
1.7 Working with common flow constructs
1.8 More information
2 sudo basics
2.1 Basic sudo usage
2.2 Configuring sudo
2.3 sudo use cases
2.4 More information
3 Using YaST
3.1 YaST interface overview
3.2 Useful key combinations
4 YaST in text mode
4.1 Navigation in modules
4.2 Advanced key combinations
4.3 Restriction of key combinations
4.4 YaST command line options
5 YaST online update
5.1 The online update dialog
5.2 Installing patches
5.3 Viewing retracted patches
5.4 Automatic online update
6 Managing software with command line tools
6.1 Using Zypper
6.2 RPM—the package manager
7 System recovery and snapshot management with Snapper
7.1 Default setup
7.2 Using Snapper to undo changes
7.3 System rollback by booting from snapshots
7.4 Enabling Snapper in user home directories
7.5 Creating and modifying Snapper configurations
7.6 Manually creating and managing snapshots
7.7 Automatic snapshot clean-up
7.8 Showing exclusive disk space used by snapshots
7.9 Frequently asked questions
8 Live kernel patching with KLP
8.1 Advantages of Kernel Live Patching
8.2 Kernel Live Patching overview
8.3 Activating Kernel Live Patching using YaST
8.4 Activating Kernel Live Patching from the command line
8.5 Performing Kernel Live Patching
8.6 Troubleshooting Kernel Live Patching issues
9 Transactional updates
9.1 Limitations of technology preview
9.2 Enabling transactional-update
9.3 Managing automatic updates
9.4 The transactional-update command
9.5 Troubleshooting
10 Remote graphical sessions with VNC
10.1 The vncviewer client
10.2 Remmina: the remote desktop client
10.3 Configuring one-time sessions on the VNC server
10.4 Configuring persistent VNC server sessions
10.5 Configuring encryption on the VNC server
11 File copying with RSync
11.1 Conceptual overview
11.2 Basic syntax
11.3 Copying files and directories locally
11.4 Copying files and directories remotely
11.5 Configuring and using an rsync server
11.6 More information
II Booting a Linux system
12 Introduction to the boot process
12.1 Terminology
12.2 The Linux boot process
13 UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)
13.1 Secure boot
13.2 More information
14 The boot loader GRUB 2
14.1 Main differences between GRUB legacy and GRUB 2
14.2 Configuration file structure
14.3 Configuring the boot loader with YaST
14.4 Differences in terminal usage on IBM Z
14.5 Helpful GRUB 2 commands
14.6 More information
15 The systemd daemon
15.1 The systemd concept
15.2 Basic usage
15.3 System start and target management
15.4 Managing services with YaST
15.5 Customizing systemd
15.6 Advanced usage
15.7 systemd timer units
15.8 More information
III System
16 32-bit and 64-bit applications in a 64-bit system environment
16.1 Runtime support
16.2 Kernel specifications
17 journalctl: Query the systemd journal
17.1 Making the journal persistent
17.2 journalctl: Useful switches
17.3 Filtering the journal output
17.4 Investigating systemd errors
17.5 Journald configuration
17.6 Using YaST to filter the systemd journal
17.7 Viewing logs in GNOME
18 update-alternatives: Managing multiple versions of commands and files
18.1 Overview
18.2 Use cases
18.3 Getting an overview of alternatives
18.4 Viewing details on specific alternatives
18.5 Setting the default version of alternatives
18.6 Installing custom alternatives
18.7 Defining dependent alternatives
19 Basic networking
19.1 IP addresses and routing
19.2 IPv6—the next generation Internet
19.3 Name resolution
19.4 Configuring a network connection with YaST
19.5 Configuring a network connection manually
19.6 Basic router setup
19.7 Setting up bonding devices
19.8 Setting up team devices for Network Teaming
19.9 Software-defined networking with Open vSwitch
20 Printer operation
20.1 The CUPS workflow
20.2 Methods and protocols for connecting printers
20.3 Installing the software
20.4 Network printers
20.5 Configuring CUPS with command line tools
20.6 Printing from the command line
20.7 Special features in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
20.8 Troubleshooting
21 Graphical user interface
21.1 X window system
21.2 Installing and configuring fonts
21.3 GNOME configuration for administrators
21.4 Switching between Intel and NVIDIA Optimus GPUs with SUSE Prime
22 Accessing file systems with FUSE
22.1 Configuring FUSE
22.2 Mounting an NTFS partition
22.3 More information
23 Managing kernel modules
23.1 Listing loaded modules with lsmod and modinfo
23.2 Adding and removing kernel modules
24 Dynamic kernel device management with udev
24.1 The /dev directory
24.2 Kernel uevents and udev
24.3 Drivers, kernel modules and devices
24.4 Booting and initial device setup
24.5 Monitoring the running udev daemon
24.6 Influencing kernel device event handling with udev rules
24.7 Persistent device naming
24.8 Files used by udev
24.9 More information
25 Special system features
25.1 Information about special software packages
25.2 Virtual consoles
25.3 Keyboard mapping
25.4 Language and country-specific settings
26 Using NetworkManager
26.1 Use cases for NetworkManager
26.2 Enabling or disabling NetworkManager
26.3 Configuring network connections
26.4 NetworkManager and security
26.5 Frequently asked questions
26.6 Troubleshooting
26.7 More information
27 Power management
27.1 Power saving functions
27.2 Advanced configuration and power interface (ACPI)
27.3 Rest for the hard disk
27.4 Troubleshooting
28 Persistent memory
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Terms
28.3 Use cases
28.4 Tools for managing persistent memory
28.5 Setting up persistent memory
28.6 More information
IV Services
29 Service management with YaST
30 Time synchronization with NTP
30.1 Configuring an NTP client with YaST
30.2 Manually configuring NTP in the network
30.3 Configure chronyd at runtime using chronyc
30.4 Dynamic time synchronization at runtime
30.5 Setting up a local reference clock
30.6 Clock synchronization to an external time reference (ETR)
31 The domain name system
31.1 DNS terminology
31.2 Installation
31.3 Configuration with YaST
31.4 Starting the BIND name server
31.5 The /etc/named.conf configuration file
31.6 Zone files
31.7 Dynamic update of zone data
31.8 Secure transactions
31.9 DNS security
31.10 More information
32.1 Configuring a DHCP server with YaST
32.2 DHCP software packages
32.3 The DHCP server dhcpd
32.4 More information
33 SLP
33.1 The SLP front-end slptool
33.2 Providing services via SLP
33.3 More information
34 The Apache HTTP server
34.1 Quick start
34.2 Configuring Apache
34.3 Starting and stopping Apache
34.4 Installing, activating, and configuring modules
34.5 Enabling CGI scripts
34.6 Setting up a secure Web server with SSL
34.7 Running multiple Apache instances on the same server
34.8 Avoiding security problems
34.9 Troubleshooting
34.10 More information
35 Setting up an FTP server with YaST
35.1 Starting the FTP server
35.2 FTP general settings
35.3 FTP performance settings
35.4 Authentication
35.5 Expert settings
35.6 More information
36 Squid caching proxy server
36.1 Some facts about proxy servers
36.2 System requirements
36.3 Basic usage of Squid
36.4 The YaST Squid module
36.5 The Squid configuration file
36.6 Configuring a transparent proxy
36.7 Using the Squid cache manager CGI interface (cachemgr.cgi)
36.8 Cache report generation with Calamaris
36.9 More information
37 Web Based Enterprise Management using SFCB
37.1 Introduction and basic concept
37.2 Setting up SFCB
37.3 SFCB CIMOM configuration
37.4 Advanced SFCB tasks
37.5 More information
V Troubleshooting
38 Help and documentation
38.1 Documentation directory
38.2 Man pages
38.3 Info pages
38.4 Online resources
39 Gathering system information for support
39.1 Displaying current system information
39.2 Collecting system information with supportconfig
39.3 Submitting information to Global Technical Support
39.4 Analyzing system information
39.5 Gathering information during the installation
39.6 Support of kernel modules
39.7 More information
40 Common problems and their solutions
40.1 Finding and gathering information
40.2 Boot problems
40.3 Login problems
40.4 Network problems
40.5 Data problems
40.6 IBM Z: using initrd as a rescue system
A An example network
B GNU licenses
B.1 GNU free documentation license
List of Figures
4.1 Main window of YaST in text mode
4.2 The software installation module
5.1 YaST online update
5.2 Viewing retracted patches and history
5.3 YaST online update configuration
7.1 Boot loader: snapshots
10.1 vncviewer
10.2 Remmina's main window
10.3 Remote desktop preference
10.4 Quick-starting
10.5 Remmina viewing remote session
10.6 Reading path to the profile file
10.7 Remote administration
10.8 VNC session settings
10.9 Joining a persistent VNC session
13.1 Secure boot support
13.2 UEFI: secure boot process
14.1 GRUB 2 boot editor
14.2 Boot code options
14.3 Code options
14.4 Boot loader options
14.5 Kernel parameters
15.1 Services Manager
17.1 YaST systemd journal
19.1 Simplified layer model for TCP/IP
19.2 TCP/IP ethernet packet
19.3 Configuring network settings
19.4 wicked architecture
26.1 GNOME Network Connections dialog
26.2 firewalld zones in NetworkManager
29.1 YaST service manager
30.1 NTP configuration window
30.2 Adding a time server
31.1 DNS server installation: forwarder settings
31.2 DNS server installation: DNS zones
31.3 DNS server installation: finish wizard
31.4 DNS server: logging
31.5 DNS server: Zone Editor (Basics)
31.6 DNS server: Zone Editor (NS Records)
31.7 DNS server: Zone Editor (MX Records)
31.8 DNS server: Zone Editor (SOA)
31.9 Adding a record for a master zone
31.10 Adding a reverse zone
31.11 Adding a reverse record
32.1 DHCP server: card selection
32.2 DHCP server: global settings
32.3 DHCP server: dynamic DHCP
32.4 DHCP server: start-up
32.5 DHCP server: host management
32.6 DHCP server: chroot jail and declarations
32.7 DHCP server: selecting a declaration type
32.8 DHCP server: configuring subnets
32.9 DHCP server: TSIG configuration
32.10 DHCP server: interface configuration for dynamic DNS
32.11 DHCP server: network interface and firewall
34.1 HTTP server wizard: default host
34.2 HTTP server wizard: summary
34.3 HTTP server configuration: listen ports and addresses
34.4 HTTP server configuration: server modules
35.1 FTP server configuration — start-up
39.1 HTML report generated by SCA tool
39.2 HTML report generated by SCA appliance
List of Examples
1.1 A shell script printing a text
6.1 Zypper—list of known repositories
6.2 rpm -q -i wget
6.3 Script to search for packages
7.1 Example timeline configuration
14.1 Usage of grub2-mkconfig
14.2 Usage of grub2-mkrescue
14.3 Usage of grub2-script-check
14.4 Usage of grub2-once
15.1 List active services
15.2 List failed services
15.3 List all processes belonging to a service
18.1 Alternatives System of the java command
19.1 Writing IP addresses
19.2 Linking IP addresses to the netmask
19.3 Sample IPv6 address
19.4 IPv6 address specifying the prefix length
19.5 Common network interfaces and some static routes
19.6 /var/run/netconfig/resolv.conf
19.7 /etc/hosts
19.8 /etc/networks
19.9 /etc/host.conf
19.10 /etc/nsswitch.conf
19.11 Output of the command ping
19.12 Configuration for load balancing with Network Teaming
19.13 Configuration for DHCP Network Teaming device
20.1 Error message from lpd
20.2 Broadcast from the CUPS network server
21.1 Specifying rendering algorithms
21.2 Aliases and family name substitutions
21.3 Aliases and family name substitutions
21.4 Aliases and family names substitutions
24.1 Example udev rules
25.1 Entry in /etc/crontab
25.2 /etc/crontab: remove time stamp files
25.3 ulimit: Settings in ~/.bashrc
31.1 Forwarding options in named.conf
31.2 A basic /etc/named.conf
31.3 Entry to disable logging
31.4 Zone entry for example.com
31.5 Zone entry for example.net
31.6 The /var/lib/named/example.com.zone file
31.7 Reverse lookup
32.1 The configuration file /etc/dhcpd.conf
32.2 Additions to the configuration file
34.1 Basic examples of name-based VirtualHost entries
34.2 Name-based VirtualHost directives
34.3 IP-based VirtualHost directives
34.4 Basic VirtualHost configuration
34.5 VirtualHost CGI configuration
36.1 A request with squidclient
36.2 Defining ACL rules
39.1 Output of hostinfo when logging in as root

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