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Security and Hardening Guide
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Security and confidentiality
  3. 2 Common Criteria
  4. I Authentication
    1. 3 Authentication with PAM
    2. 4 Using NIS
    3. 5 Setting up authentication clients using YaST
    4. 6 LDAP with 389 Directory Server
    5. 7 Network authentication with Kerberos
    6. 8 Active Directory support
    7. 9 Setting up a freeRADIUS server
  5. II Local security
    1. 10 Physical security
    2. 11 Automatic security checks with seccheck
    3. 12 Software management
    4. 13 File management
    5. 14 Encrypting partitions and files
    6. 15 Storage encryption for hosted applications with cryptctl
    7. 16 User management
    8. 17 Spectre/Meltdown checker
    9. 18 Configuring security settings with YaST
    10. 19 Authorization with PolKit
    11. 20 Access control lists in Linux
    12. 21 Certificate store
    13. 22 Intrusion detection with AIDE
  6. III Network security
    1. 23 X Window System and X authentication
    2. 24 SSH: secure network operations
    3. 25 Masquerading and firewalls
    4. 26 Configuring a VPN server
    5. 27 Managing a PKI with XCA, X certificate and key manager
    6. 28 Enabling FIPS 140-2
  7. IV Confining privileges with AppArmor
    1. 29 Introducing AppArmor
    2. 30 Getting started
    3. 31 Immunizing programs
    4. 32 Profile components and syntax
    5. 33 AppArmor profile repositories
    6. 34 Building and managing profiles with YaST
    7. 35 Building profiles from the command line
    8. 36 Profiling your Web applications using ChangeHat
    9. 37 Confining users with pam_apparmor
    10. 38 Managing profiled applications
    11. 39 Support
    12. 40 AppArmor glossary
  8. V SELinux
    1. 41 Configuring SELinux
  9. VI The Linux Audit Framework
    1. 42 Understanding Linux audit
    2. 43 Setting up the Linux audit framework
    3. 44 Introducing an audit rule set
    4. 45 Useful resources
  10. A Achieving PCI DSS compliance
  11. B GNU licenses
Applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP3

20 Access control lists in Linux Edit source

POSIX ACLs (access control lists) can be used as an expansion of the traditional permission concept for file system objects. With ACLs, permissions can be defined more flexibly than with the traditional permission concept.

The term POSIX ACL suggests that this is a true POSIX (portable operating system interface) standard. The respective draft standards POSIX 1003.1e and POSIX 1003.2c have been withdrawn for several reasons. Nevertheless, ACLs (as found on many systems belonging to the Unix family) are based on these drafts and the implementation of file system ACLs (as described in this chapter) follows these two standards.

20.1 Traditional file permissions Edit source

The permissions of all files included in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server are carefully chosen. When installing additional software or files, take great care when setting the permissions. Always use the -l option with the command ls to detect any incorrect file permissions immediately. An incorrect file attribute does not only mean that files could be changed or deleted. Modified files could be executed by root or services could be hijacked by modifying configuration files. This significantly increases the danger of an attack.

A SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server system includes the files permissions, permissions.easy, permissions.secure, and permissions.paranoid, all in the directory /etc. The purpose of these files is to define special permissions, such as world-writable directories or, for files, the setuser ID bit. Programs with the setuser ID bit set do not run with the permissions of the user that launched it, but with the permissions of the file owner, usually root. An administrator can use the file /etc/permissions.local to add their own settings.

To define one of the available profiles, select Local Security in the Security and Users section of YaST. To learn more about the topic, read the comments in /etc/permissions or consult man chmod.

Find detailed information about the traditional file permissions in the GNU Coreutils Info page, Node File permissions (info coreutils "File permissions"). More advanced features are the setuid, setgid, and sticky bit.

20.1.1 The setuid bit Edit source

In certain situations, the access permissions may be too restrictive. Therefore, Linux has additional settings that enable the temporary change of the current user and group identity for a specific action. For example, the passwd program normally requires root permissions to access /etc/passwd. This file contains some important information, like the home directories of users and user and group IDs. Thus, a normal user would not be able to change passwd, because it would be too dangerous to grant all users direct access to this file. A possible solution to this problem is the setuid mechanism. setuid (set user ID) is a special file attribute that instructs the system to execute programs marked accordingly under a specific user ID. Consider the passwd command:

-rwsr-xr-x  1 root shadow 80036 2004-10-02 11:08 /usr/bin/passwd

You can see the s that denotes that the setuid bit is set for the user permission. By means of the setuid bit, all users starting the passwd command execute it as root.

20.1.2 The setgid bit Edit source

The setuid bit applies to users. However, there is also an equivalent property for groups: the setgid bit. A program for which this bit was set runs under the group ID under which it was saved, no matter which user starts it. Therefore, in a directory with the setgid bit, all newly created files and subdirectories are assigned to the group to which the directory belongs. Consider the following example directory:

drwxrws--- 2 tux archive 48 Nov 19 17:12  backup

You can see the s that denotes that the setgid bit is set for the group permission. The owner of the directory and members of the group archive can access this directory. Users that are not members of this group are mapped to the respective group. The effective group ID of all written files will be archive. For example, a backup program that runs with the group ID archive can access this directory even without root privileges.

20.1.3 The sticky bit Edit source

There is also the sticky bit. It makes a difference whether it belongs to an executable program or a directory. If it belongs to a program, a file marked in this way is loaded to RAM to avoid needing to get it from the hard disk each time it is used. This attribute is used rarely, because modern hard disks are fast enough. If this bit is assigned to a directory, it prevents users from deleting each other's files. Typical examples include the /tmp and /var/tmp directories:

drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 1160 2002-11-19 17:15 /tmp

20.2 Advantages of ACLs Edit source

Traditionally, three permission sets are defined for each file object on a Linux system. These sets include the read (r), write (w), and execute (x) permissions for each of three types of users—the file owner, the group, and other users. In addition to that, it is possible to set the set user id, the set group id, and the sticky bit. This lean concept is fully adequate for most practical cases. However, for more complex scenarios or advanced applications, system administrators formerly needed to use several workarounds to circumvent the limitations of the traditional permission concept.

ACLs can be used as an extension of the traditional file permission concept. They allow the assignment of permissions to individual users or groups even if these do not correspond to the original owner or the owning group. Access control lists are a feature of the Linux kernel and are currently supported by Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, JFS, and XFS. Using ACLs, complex scenarios can be realized without implementing complex permission models on the application level.

The advantages of ACLs are evident if you want to replace a Windows server with a Linux server. Some connected workstations may continue to run under Windows even after the migration. The Linux system offers file and print services to the Windows clients with Samba. With Samba supporting access control lists, user permissions can be configured both on the Linux server and in Windows with a graphical user interface (only Windows NT and later). With winbindd, part of the Samba suite, it is even possible to assign permissions to users only existing in the Windows domain without any account on the Linux server.

20.3 Definitions Edit source

User class

The conventional POSIX permission concept uses three classes of users for assigning permissions in the file system: the owner, the owning group, and other users. Three permission bits can be set for each user class, giving permission to read (r), write (w), and execute (x).


The user and group access permissions for all kinds of file system objects (files and directories) are determined by means of ACLs.

Default ACL

Default ACLs can only be applied to directories. They determine the permissions a file system object inherits from its parent directory when it is created.

ACL entry

Each ACL consists of a set of ACL entries. An ACL entry contains a type, a qualifier for the user or group to which the entry refers, and a set of permissions. For some entry types, the qualifier for the group or users is undefined.

20.4 Handling ACLs Edit source

Table 20.1, “ACL entry types” summarizes the six possible types of ACL entries, each defining permissions for a user or a group of users. The owner entry defines the permissions of the user owning the file or directory. The owning group entry defines the permissions of the file's owning group. The superuser can change the owner or owning group with chown or chgrp, in which case the owner and owning group entries refer to the new owner and owning group. Each named user entry defines the permissions of the user specified in the entry's qualifier field. Each named group entry defines the permissions of the group specified in the entry's qualifier field. Only the named user and named group entries have a qualifier field that is not empty. The other entry defines the permissions of all other users.

The mask entry further limits the permissions granted by named user, named group, and owning group entries by defining which of the permissions in those entries are effective and which are masked. If permissions exist in one of the mentioned entries and in the mask, they are effective. Permissions contained only in the mask or only in the actual entry are not effective—meaning the permissions are not granted. All permissions defined in the owner and owning group entries are always effective. The example in Table 20.2, “Masking access permissions” demonstrates this mechanism.

There are two basic classes of ACLs: A minimum ACL contains only the entries for the types owner, owning group, and other, which correspond to the conventional permission bits for files and directories. An extended ACL goes beyond this. It must contain a mask entry and may contain several entries of the named user and named group types.

Table 20.1: ACL entry types


Text Form



named user


owning group


named group






Table 20.2: Masking access permissions

Entry Type

Text Form


named user






effective permissions:


20.4.1 ACL entries and file mode permission bits Edit source

Figure 20.1, “Minimum ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits” and Figure 20.2, “Extended ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits” illustrate the two cases of a minimum ACL and an extended ACL. The figures are structured in three blocks—the left block shows the type specifications of the ACL entries, the center block displays an example ACL, and the right block shows the respective permission bits according to the conventional permission concept (for example, as displayed by ls -l). In both cases, the owner class permissions are mapped to the ACL entry owner. Other class permissions are mapped to the respective ACL entry. However, the mapping of the group class permissions is different in the two cases.

Minimum ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits
Figure 20.1: Minimum ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits

In the case of a minimum ACL—without mask—the group class permissions are mapped to the ACL entry owning group. This is shown in Figure 20.1, “Minimum ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits”. In the case of an extended ACL—with mask—the group class permissions are mapped to the mask entry. This is shown in Figure 20.2, “Extended ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits”.

Extended ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits
Figure 20.2: Extended ACL: ACL entries compared to permission bits

This mapping approach ensures the smooth interaction of applications, regardless of whether they have ACL support. The access permissions that were assigned by means of the permission bits represent the upper limit for all other fine adjustments made with an ACL. Changes made to the permission bits are reflected by the ACL and vice versa.

20.4.2 A directory with an ACL Edit source

With getfacl and setfacl on the command line, you can access ACLs. The usage of these commands is demonstrated in the following example.

Before creating the directory, use the umask command to define which access permissions should be masked each time a file object is created. The command umask 027 sets the default permissions by giving the owner the full range of permissions (0), denying the group write access (2), and giving other users no permissions (7). umask actually masks the corresponding permission bits or turns them off. For details, consult the umask man page.

mkdir mydir creates the mydir directory with the default permissions as set by umask. Use ls -dl mydir to check whether all permissions were assigned correctly. The output for this example is:

drwxr-x--- ... tux project3 ... mydir

With getfacl mydir, check the initial state of the ACL. This gives information like:

# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3

The first three output lines display the name, owner, and owning group of the directory. The next three lines contain the three ACL entries owner, owning group, and other. In fact, in the case of this minimum ACL, the getfacl command does not produce any information you could not have obtained with ls.

Modify the ACL to assign read, write, and execute permissions to an additional user geeko and an additional group mascots with:

root # setfacl -m user:geeko:rwx,group:mascots:rwx mydir

The option -m prompts setfacl to modify the existing ACL. The following argument indicates the ACL entries to modify (multiple entries are separated by commas). The final part specifies the name of the directory to which these modifications should be applied. Use the getfacl command to take a look at the resulting ACL.

# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3

In addition to the entries initiated for the user geeko and the group mascots, a mask entry has been generated. This mask entry is set automatically so that all permissions are effective. setfacl automatically adapts existing mask entries to the settings modified, unless you deactivate this feature with -n. The mask entry defines the maximum effective access permissions for all entries in the group class. This includes named user, named group, and owning group. The group class permission bits displayed by ls -dl mydir now correspond to the mask entry.

drwxrwx---+ ... tux project3 ... mydir

The first column of the output contains an additional + to indicate that there is an extended ACL for this item.

According to the output of the ls command, the permissions for the mask entry include write access. Traditionally, such permission bits would mean that the owning group (here project3) also has write access to the directory mydir.

However, the effective access permissions for the owning group correspond to the overlapping portion of the permissions defined for the owning group and for the mask—which is r-x in our example (see Table 20.2, “Masking access permissions”). As far as the effective permissions of the owning group in this example are concerned, nothing has changed even after the addition of the ACL entries.

Edit the mask entry with setfacl or chmod. For example, use chmod g-w mydir. ls -dl mydir then shows:

drwxr-x---+ ... tux project3 ... mydir

getfacl mydir provides the following output:

# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user:geeko:rwx          # effective: r-x
group:mascots:rwx       # effective: r-x

After executing chmod to remove the write permission from the group class bits, the output of ls is sufficient to see that the mask bits must have changed accordingly: Write permission is again limited to the owner of mydir. The output of the getfacl confirms this. This output includes a comment for all those entries in which the effective permission bits do not correspond to the original permissions, because they are filtered according to the mask entry. The original permissions can be restored at any time with chmod g+w mydir.

20.4.3 A directory with a default ACL Edit source

Directories can have a default ACL, which is a special kind of ACL defining the access permissions that objects in the directory inherit when they are created. A default ACL affects both subdirectories and files. Effects of a default ACL Edit source

There are two ways in which the permissions of a directory's default ACL are passed to the files and subdirectories:

  • A subdirectory inherits the default ACL of the parent directory both as its default ACL and as an ACL.

  • A file inherits the default ACL as its ACL.

All system calls that create file system objects use a mode parameter that defines the access permissions for the newly created file system object. If the parent directory does not have a default ACL, the permission bits as defined by the umask are subtracted from the permissions as passed by the mode parameter, with the result being assigned to the new object. If a default ACL exists for the parent directory, the permission bits assigned to the new object correspond to the overlapping portion of the permissions of the mode parameter and those that are defined in the default ACL. The umask is disregarded in this case. Application of default ACLs Edit source

The following three examples show the main operations for directories and default ACLs:

  1. Add a default ACL to the existing directory mydir with:

    tux > setfacl -d -m group:mascots:r-x mydir

    The option -d of the setfacl command prompts setfacl to perform the following modifications (option -m) in the default ACL.

    Take a closer look at the result of this command:

    tux > getfacl mydir
    # file: mydir
    # owner: tux
    # group: project3

    getfacl returns both the ACL and the default ACL. The default ACL is formed by all lines that start with default. Although you merely executed the setfacl command with an entry for the mascots group for the default ACL, setfacl automatically copied all other entries from the ACL to create a valid default ACL. Default ACLs do not have an immediate effect on access permissions. They only come into play when file system objects are created. These new objects inherit permissions only from the default ACL of their parent directory.

  2. In the next example, use mkdir to create a subdirectory in mydir, which inherits the default ACL.

    tux > mkdir mydir/mysubdir
    getfacl mydir/mysubdir
    # file: mydir/mysubdir
    # owner: tux
    # group: project3

    As expected, the newly created subdirectory mysubdir has the permissions from the default ACL of the parent directory. The ACL of mysubdir is an exact reflection of the default ACL of mydir. The default ACL that this directory will hand down to its subordinate objects is also the same.

  3. Use touch to create a file in the mydir directory, for example, touch mydir/myfile. ls -l mydir/myfile then shows:

    -rw-r-----+ ... tux project3 ... mydir/myfile

    The output of getfacl mydir/myfile is:

    # file: mydir/myfile
    # owner: tux
    # group: project3
    group::r-x          # effective:r--
    group:mascots:r-x   # effective:r--

    touch uses a mode with the value 0666 when creating new files, which means that the files are created with read and write permissions for all user classes, provided no other restrictions exist in umask or in the default ACL (see Section, “Effects of a default ACL”). In effect, this means that all access permissions not contained in the mode value are removed from the respective ACL entries. Although no permissions were removed from the ACL entry of the group class, the mask entry was modified to mask permissions not set in mode.

    This approach ensures the smooth interaction of applications (such as compilers) with ACLs. You can create files with restricted access permissions and subsequently mark them as executable. The mask mechanism guarantees that the right users and groups can execute them as desired.

20.4.4 The ACL check algorithm Edit source

A check algorithm is applied before any process or application is granted access to an ACL-protected file system object. As a basic rule, the ACL entries are examined in the following sequence: owner, named user, owning group or named group, and other. The access is handled in accordance with the entry that best suits the process. Permissions do not accumulate.

Things are more complicated if a process belongs to more than one group and would potentially suit several group entries. An entry is randomly selected from the suitable entries with the required permissions. It is irrelevant which of the entries triggers the final result access granted. Likewise, if none of the suitable group entries contain the required permissions, a randomly selected entry triggers the final result access denied.

20.5 ACL support in applications Edit source

ACLs can be used to implement very complex permission scenarios that meet the requirements of modern applications. The traditional permission concept and ACLs can be combined in a smart manner. The basic file commands (cp, mv, ls, etc.) support ACLs, as do Samba and Nautilus.

Vi/Vim and emacs both fully support ACLs by preserving the permissions on writing files including backups. Unfortunately, many editors and file managers still lack ACL support. When modifying files with an editor, the ACLs of files are sometimes preserved and sometimes not, depending on the backup mode of the editor used. If the editor writes the changes to the original file, the ACL is preserved. If the editor saves the updated contents to a new file that is subsequently renamed to the old file name, the ACLs may be lost, unless the editor supports ACLs. Except for the star archiver, there are currently no backup applications that preserve ACLs.

20.6 More information Edit source

For more information about ACLs, see the man pages for getfacl(1), acl(5), and setfacl(1).

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