System Security with OpenSCAP
SUSE Manager uses OpenSCAP to audit clients. It allows you to schedule and view compliance scans for any client.
The Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) is a synthesis of interoperable specifications derived from community ideas. It is a line of specifications maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for maintaining system security for enterprise systems.
SCAP was created to provide a standardized approach to maintaining system security, and the standards that are used continually change to meet the needs of the community and enterprise businesses. New specifications are governed by NIST’s SCAP Release cycle to provide a consistent and repeatable revision work flow. For more information, see:
SUSE Manager uses OpenSCAP to implement the SCAP specifications. OpenSCAP is an auditing tool that utilizes the Extensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF). XCCDF is a standard way of expressing checklist content and defines security checklists. It also combines with other specifications such as Common Platform Enumeration (CPE), Common Configuration Enumeration (CCE), and Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language (OVAL), to create a SCAP-expressed checklist that can be processed by SCAP-validated products.
OpenSCAP verifies the presence of patches by using content produced by the SUSE Security Team. OpenSCAP checks system security configuration settings and examines systems for signs of compromise by using rules based on standards and specifications. For more information about the SUSE Security Team, see https://www.suse.com/support/security.
Before you begin, you need to prepare your client systems for SCAP scanning.
OpenSCAP auditing is not available on Salt clients that use the SSH contact method.
Scanning clients can consume a lot of memory and compute power on the client being scanned. For Red Hat clients, ensure you have at least 2 GB of RAM available on each client to be scanned.
For traditional and Salt clients, install the OpenSCAP scanner and the SCAP Security Guide (content) packages before you begin. Depending on the operating system, these packages are included either on the base operating system, or in the SUSE Manager Client Tools.
The table below lists the packages you need depending on your client operating system:
RHEL 7 and compatible systems provide a
scap-security-guide package, which contains outdated contents.
You are advised to use the
scap-security-guide-redhat package you will find in the SUSE Manager Client Tools.
SUSE provides the
Other profiles, like the CIS profile, are community supplied and not officially supported by SUSE.
For Non-SUSE OSs, note that the included profiles are community supplied and not officially supported by SUSE.
OpenSCAP uses SCAP content files to define test rules. These content files are created based on the XCCDF or OVAL standards. In addition to the SCAP Security Guide, you can download publicly available content files and customize it to your requirements. You can install the SCAP Security Guide package for default content file templates. Alternatively, if you are familiar with XCCDF or OVAL, you can create your own content files.
We recommend you use templates to create your SCAP content files. If you create and use your own custom content files, you do so at your own risk. If your system becomes damaged through the use of custom content files, you might not be supported by SUSE.
When you have created your content files, you need to transfer the file to the client.
You can do this in the same way as you move any other file, using physical storage media, or across a network with Salt (for example, salt-cp or the Salt File Server),
We recommend that you create a package to distribute content files to clients that you are managing with SUSE Manager. Packages can be signed and verified to ensure their integrity. For more information, see Custom Channels.
Different operating systems make available different OpenSCAP content files and profiles. One content file may contain more than one profile.
On RPM-based operating systems, use this command to determine the location of the available SCAP files:
rpm -ql <scap-security-guide-package-name-from-table>
On DEB-based operating systems, use this command to determine the location of the available SCAP files:
dpkg -L <scap-security-guide-package-name-from-table>
When you have identified one SCAP content file that suits your needs, list profiles available on the client:
oscap info /usr/share/xml/scap/ssg/content/ssg-sle15-ds-1.2.xml Document type: Source Data Stream Imported: 2021-03-24T18:14:45 Stream: scap_org.open-scap_datastream_from_xccdf_ssg-sle15-xccdf-1.2.xml Generated: (null) Version: 1.2 Checklists: Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-sle15-xccdf-1.2.xml Status: draft Generated: 2021-03-24 Resolved: true Profiles: Title: CIS SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 Benchmark Id: xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_cis Title: Standard System Security Profile for SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 Id: xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_standard Title: DISA STIG for SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 Id: xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_stig Referenced check files: ssg-sle15-oval.xml system: http://oval.mitre.org/XMLSchema/oval-definitions-5 ssg-sle15-ocil.xml system: http://scap.nist.gov/schema/ocil/2 https://ftp.suse.com/pub/projects/security/oval/suse.linux.enterprise.15.xml system: http://oval.mitre.org/XMLSchema/oval-definitions-5 Checks: Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-sle15-oval.xml Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-sle15-ocil.xml Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-sle15-cpe-oval.xml Dictionaries: Ref-Id: scap_org.open-scap_cref_ssg-sle15-cpe-dictionary.xml
Take a note of the file paths and profiles for performing the scan.
When you have installed or transferred your content files, you can perform audit scans. Audit scans can be triggered using the SUSE Manager Web UI. You can also use the SUSE Manager API to schedule regular scans.
In the SUSE Manager Web UI, navigate toand select the client you want to scan.
Navigate to the
Audittab, and the
Path to XCCDF Documentfield, enter the parameters for the SCAP template and profile you want to use on the client. For example:
Command: /usr/bin/oscap xccdf eval Command-line arguments: --profile xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_standard Path to XCCDF document: /usr/share/xml/scap/ssg/content/ssg-sle15-ds-1.2.xml
The scan runs at the client’s next scheduled synchronization.
The XCCDF content file is validated before it is run on the remote system. If the content file includes invalid arguments, the test fails.
Before you begin, ensure that the client to be scanned has Python and XML-RPC libraries installed.
Choose an existing script or create a script for scheduling a system scan through
system.scap.scheduleXccdfScan. For example:
#!/usr/bin/python3 client = xmlrpc.client.ServerProxy('https://server.example.com/rpc/api') key = client.auth.login('username', 'password') client.system.scap.scheduleXccdfScan(key, <1000010001>, '<path_to_xccdf_file.xml>', '--profile <profile_name>')
In this example: *
<1000010001>is the system ID (sid). *
<path_to_xccdf_file.xml>is the path to the content file location on the client. For example,
<profile_name>is an additional argument for the
oscapcommand. For example, use
Run the script on the client you want to scan, from the command prompt.
Information about the scans you have run is in the SUSE Manager Web UI. Navigate to to All Scans.for a table of results. For more information about the data in this table, see
To ensure that detailed information about scans is available, you need to enable it on the client.
In the SUSE Manager Web UI, navigate to
Configuration tab, and check the
Enable Upload of Detailed SCAP Files option.
When enabled, this generates an additional HTML file on every scan, which contains extra information.
The results show an extra line similar to this:
Detailed Results: xccdf-report.html xccdf-results.xml scap-yast2sec-oval.xml.result.xml
To retrieve scan information from the command line, use the
spacewalk-report system-history-scap spacewalk-report scap-scan spacewalk-report scap-scan-results
You can also use the SUSE Manager API to view results, with the
Remediation bash scripts and Ansible playbooks are provided in the same SCAP Security Guide packages to harden the client systems. For example:
/usr/share/scap-security-guide/bash/sle15-script-cis.sh /usr/share/scap-security-guide/bash/sle15-script-standard.sh /usr/share/scap-security-guide/bash/sle15-script-stig.sh
/usr/share/scap-security-guide/ansible/sle15-playbook-cis.yml /usr/share/scap-security-guide/ansible/sle15-playbook-standard.yml /usr/share/scap-security-guide/ansible/sle15-playbook-stig.yml
You can run them using remote commands or with Ansible, after enabling Ansible in the client system.